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Cisco IOS Router NDM Security Technical Implementation Guide

Version 21 Release 14
2020-10-232020-07-24
U_Cisco_IOS_Router_NDM_STIG_V21R14_Manual-xccdf.xml
This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: disa.stig_spt@mail.mil.

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Vulnerabilities (103)

Added

V-96007

The Cisco router must be configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000010
Rule ID
SV-105145r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000001-NDM-000200
CCI
CCI-000054
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Device management includes the ability to control the number of administrators and management sessions that manage a device. Limiting the number of allowed administrators and sessions per administrator based on account type, role, or access type is helpful in limiting risks related to DoS attacks. This requirement addresses concurrent sessions for administrative accounts and does not address concurrent sessions by a single administrator via multiple administrative accounts. The maximum number of concurrent sessions should be defined based upon mission needs and the operational environment for each system. At a minimum, limits must be set for SSH, HTTPS, account of last resort, and root account sessions.

Fix Text

Configure the router to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number as shown in the example below. ip http max-connections 2 line vty 0 4 session-limit 2

Check Content

Note: This requirement is not applicable to file transfer actions such as FTP, SCP and SFTP. Review the router configuration to determine if concurrent management sessions are limited as show in the example below: ip http secure-server ip http max-connections 2 … … … line vty 0 4 session-limit 2 transport input ssh If the router is not configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions, this is a finding.

Added

V-96015

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account creation.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000090
Rule ID
SV-105153r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000026-NDM-000208
CCI
CCI-000018
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Upon gaining access to a network device, an attacker will often first attempt to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is to create a new account. Notification of account creation helps to mitigate this risk. Auditing account creation provides the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. Without this audit trail, personnel without the proper authorization may gain access to critical network nodes.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account creation using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account creation. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account creation is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Added

V-96017

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account modification.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000100
Rule ID
SV-105155r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000027-NDM-000209
CCI
CCI-001403
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Account management by a designated authority ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel with the appropriate and necessary privileges. Auditing account modification along with an automatic notification to appropriate individuals will provide the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. If modifications to management accounts are not audited, reconciliation of account management procedures cannot be tracked.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account modification using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account modification. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account modification is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Added

V-96019

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account disabling actions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000110
Rule ID
SV-105157r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000028-NDM-000210
CCI
CCI-001404
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account disabling actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are disabled, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account disabling using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account disabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account disabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Added

V-96021

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account removal actions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000120
Rule ID
SV-105159r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000029-NDM-000211
CCI
CCI-001405
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account removal actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are terminated, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account removal using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account removal. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account removal is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Added

V-96023

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000140
Rule ID
SV-105161r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000038-NDM-000213
CCI
CCI-001368
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

A mechanism to detect and prevent unauthorized communication flow must be configured or provided as part of the system design. If management information flow is not enforced based on approved authorizations, the network device may become compromised. Information flow control regulates where management information is allowed to travel within a network device. The flow of all management information must be monitored and controlled so it does not introduce any unacceptable risk to the network device or data. Application-specific examples of enforcement occur in systems that employ rule sets or establish configuration settings that restrict information system services or message-filtering capability based on message content (e.g., implementing key word searches or using document characteristics). Applications providing information flow control must be able to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the system in accordance with applicable policy.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to restrict management access to specific IP addresses via SSH as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ip access-list standard MANAGEMENT_NET R2(config-std-nacl)#permit x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 R2(config-std-nacl)#exit R2(config)#line vty 0 4 R2(config-line)#transport input ssh R2(config-line)#access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in R2(config-line)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: Verify that the line vty has an ACL inbound applied as shown in the example below. line vty 0 4 access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in transport input ssh Step 2: Verify that the ACL permits only hosts from the management network to access the router. ip access-list standard MANAGEMENT_NET permit x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies, this is a finding.

Added

V-96025

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, after which time it must lock out the user account from accessing the device for 15 minutes.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000150
Rule ID
SV-105163r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000065-NDM-000214
CCI
CCI-000044
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below. R2(config)#login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it enforces the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below. login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120 Note: The configuration example above will block any login attempt for 15 minutes after three consecutive invalid logon attempts within a two-minute period. If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, this is a finding.

Added

V-96027

The Cisco router must be configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000160
Rule ID
SV-105165r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000068-NDM-000215
CCI
CCI-000048
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Display of the DoD-approved use notification before granting access to the network device ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. System use notifications are required only for access via logon interfaces with human users.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access as shown in the following example: R1(config)#banner login # Enter TEXT message. End with the character '#'. You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. # R1(config)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. banner login ^C You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. ^C If the Cisco router is not configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device, this is a finding.

Added

V-96035

The Cisco router must be configured to protect against an individual falsely denying having performed organization-defined actions to be covered by non-repudiation.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000210
Rule ID
SV-105173r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000080-NDM-000220
CCI
CCI-000166
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

This requirement supports non-repudiation of actions taken by an administrator and is required in order to maintain the integrity of the configuration management process. All configuration changes to the network device are logged, and administrators authenticate with two-factor authentication before gaining administrative access. Together, these processes will ensure the administrators can be held accountable for the configuration changes they implement. To meet this requirement, the network device must log administrator access and activity.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log administrator activity as shown in the example below. R1(config)#logging userinfo R1(config)#archive R1(config-archive)#log config R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. hostname R1 ! logging userinfo ! … … … archive log config logging enable ! Note: The logging userinfo global configuration command will generate a log when a user increases his or her privilege level. If logging of administrator activity is not configured, this is a finding.

Added

V-96039

The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to log on with access privileges occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000250
Rule ID
SV-105177r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000091-NDM-000223
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to log all logon attempts as shown in the example below. R1(config)#login on-failure log R1(config)#login on-success log R1(config)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all logon attempts. login on-failure log login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to logon, this is a finding.

Added

V-96041

The Cisco router must produce audit records containing information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000280
Rule ID
SV-105179r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000096-NDM-000226
CCI
CCI-000131
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

It is essential for security personnel to know what is being done, what was attempted, where it was done, when it was done, and by whom it was done in order to compile an accurate risk assessment. Logging the date and time of each detected event provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured network device. In order to establish and correlate the series of events leading up to an outage or attack, it is imperative the date and time are recorded in all log records.

Fix Text

Configure the router to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the example below. R1(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

Check Content

Verify that the router is configured to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the configuration example below. service timestamps log datetime localtime If time stamps is not configured, this is a finding.

Added

V-96043

The Cisco router must produce audit records containing information to establish where the events occurred.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000290
Rule ID
SV-105181r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000097-NDM-000227
CCI
CCI-000132
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know where events occurred, such as device hardware components, device software modules, session identifiers, filenames, host names, and functionality. Associating information about where the event occurred within the network device provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured device.

Fix Text

Configure the log-input parameter after any deny statements to provide the location as to where packets have been dropped via an ACL. R1(config)#ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny icmp any any log-input

Check Content

Review the deny statements in all ACLs to determine if the log-input parameter has been configured as shown in the example below. ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND deny icmp any any log-input If the router is not configured with the log-input parameter after any deny statements to note where packets have been dropped via an ACL, this is a finding.

Added

V-96045

The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records containing the full-text recording of privileged commands.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000330
Rule ID
SV-105183r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000101-NDM-000231
CCI
CCI-000135
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. Organizations consider limiting the additional audit information to only that information explicitly needed for specific audit requirements. The additional information required is dependent on the type of information (i.e., sensitivity of the data and the environment within which it resides). At a minimum, the organization must audit full-text recording of privileged commands. The organization must maintain audit trails in sufficient detail to reconstruct events to determine the cause and impact of compromise.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to log all configuration changes as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all configuration changes. archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records of configuration changes, this is a finding.

Added

V-96049

The Cisco router must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized modification.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000380
Rule ID
SV-105187r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000119-NDM-000236
CCI
CCI-000163
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit network device activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized modification. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions and limiting log data locations. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the modification of audit data.

Fix Text

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Added

V-96051

The Cisco router must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized deletion.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000390
Rule ID
SV-105189r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000120-NDM-000237
CCI
CCI-000164
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include: ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections, restricting access, and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit data.

Fix Text

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Added

V-96055

The Cisco router must be configured to limit privileges to change the software resident within software libraries.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000460
Rule ID
SV-105193r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000133-NDM-000244
CCI
CCI-001499
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Changes to any software components of the network device can have significant effects on the overall security of the network. Therefore, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed administrative access to the network device for implementing any changes or upgrades. If the network device were to enable non-authorized users to make changes to software libraries, those changes could be implemented without undergoing testing, validation, and approval.

Fix Text

Configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

Check Content

Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Added

V-96057

The Cisco router must be configured to prohibit the use of all unnecessary and nonsecure functions and services.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000470
Rule ID
SV-105195r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000142-NDM-000245
CCI
CCI-000382
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Network devices are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the network device must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports, protocols, and/or services to only those required, authorized, and approved. Some network devices have capabilities enabled by default; if these capabilities are not necessary, they must be disabled. If a particular capability is used, then it must be documented and approved.

Fix Text

Disable the following services if enabled as shown in the example below. R2(config)#no boot network R2(config)#no ip boot server R2(config)#no ip bootp server R2(config)#no ip dns server R2(config)#no ip identd R2(config)#no ip finger R2(config)#no ip http server R2(config)#no ip rcmd rcp-enable R2(config)#no ip rcmd rsh-enable R2(config)#no service config R2(config)#no service finger R2(config)#no service tcp-small-servers R2(config)#no service udp-small-servers R2(config)#no service pad R2(config)#end

Check Content

Verify that the router does not have any unnecessary or non-secure ports, protocols and services enabled. For example, the following commands should not be in the configuration: boot network ip boot server ip bootp server ip dns server ip identd ip finger ip http server ip rcmd rcp-enable ip rcmd rsh-enable service config service finger service tcp-small-servers service udp-small-servers If any unnecessary or non-secure ports, protocols, or services are enabled, this is a finding.

Added

V-96061

The Cisco router must be configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000490
Rule ID
SV-105199r2_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000148-NDM-000346
CCI
CCI-002111
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Authentication for administrative (privileged level) access to the device is required at all times. An account can be created on the device's local database for use when the authentication server is down or connectivity between the device and the authentication server is not operable. This account is referred to as the account of last resort since it is intended to be used as a last resort and when immediate administrative access is absolutely necessary. The account of last resort logon credentials must be stored in a sealed envelope and kept in a safe. The safe must be periodically audited to verify the envelope remains sealed. The signature of the auditor and the date of the audit should be added to the envelope as a record. Administrators should secure the credentials and disable the root account (if possible) when not needed for system administration functions.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure a local account as shown in the example below. R2(config)#username xxxxxxxxx privilege nn secret xxxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the local account if the authentication server is not reachable as shown in the following example: R2(config)#aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local

Check Content

Step 1: Review the router configuration to verify that a local account for last resort has been configured with a privilege level that will enable the administrator to troubleshoot connectivity to the authentication server. username xxxxxxxxxxx privilege 10 common-criteria-policy PASSWORD_POLICY password xxxxxxxxxx Note: The configured Common Criteria policy must be used when creating or changing the local account password as shown in the example above. Step 2: Verify that local is defined after radius or tacacs+ in the authentication order as shown in the example below: aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local If the router is not configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable, this is a finding.

Added

V-96067

The Cisco router must be configured to implement replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000530
Rule ID
SV-105205r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000156-NDM-000250
CCI
CCI-001941
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

A replay attack may enable an unauthorized user to gain access to the application. Authentication sessions between the authenticator and the application validating the user credentials must not be vulnerable to a replay attack. An authentication process resists replay attacks if it is impractical to achieve a successful authentication by recording and replaying a previous authentication message. Techniques used to address this include protocols using nonces (e.g., numbers generated for a specific one-time use) or challenges (e.g., TLS, WS_Security). Additional techniques include time-synchronous or challenge-response one-time authenticators.

Fix Text

Configure SSH to use FIPS-140-2 compliant HMACs as shown in the example below. R1(config)#ip ssh version 2 R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes192-cbc aes192-ctr Note: An SSH configuration enables a server and client to authorize the negotiation of only those algorithms that are configured from the allowed list. If a user tries to negotiate using an algorithm that is not part of the allowed list, the request is rejected and the session is not established.

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that SSH is configured to use FIPS-140-2 compliant HMACs as shown in the example below. ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes192-cbc aes192-ctr Note: An SSH configuration enables a server and client to authorize the negotiation of only those algorithms that are configured from the allowed list. If a remote party tries to negotiate using an algorithm that is not part of the allowed list, the request is rejected and the session is not established. If the router is not configured to implement replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts, this is a finding.

Added

V-96071

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000550
Rule ID
SV-105209r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000164-NDM-000252
CCI
CCI-000205
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce a minimum 15-character password length as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#min-length 15 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY min-length 15 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length, this is a finding.

Added

V-96073

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000570
Rule ID
SV-105211r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000166-NDM-000254
CCI
CCI-000192
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex passwords helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#upper-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY upper-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used, this is a finding.

Added

V-96075

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000580
Rule ID
SV-105213r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000167-NDM-000255
CCI
CCI-000193
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#lower-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY lower-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used, this is a finding.

Added

V-96077

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000590
Rule ID
SV-105215r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000168-NDM-000256
CCI
CCI-000194
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#numeric-count 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY numeric-count 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used, this is a finding.

Added

V-96079

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000600
Rule ID
SV-105217r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000169-NDM-000257
CCI
CCI-001619
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#special-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY special-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used, this is a finding.

Added

V-96081

The Cisco router must be configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000610
Rule ID
SV-105219r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000170-NDM-000329
CCI
CCI-000195
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of passwords, this increases the chances of password compromise by increasing the window of opportunity for attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. The number of changed characters refers to the number of changes required with respect to the total number of positions in the current password. In other words, characters may be the same within the two passwords; however, the positions of the like characters must be different. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#char-changes 8 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY char-changes 8 If the Cisco router is not configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password, this is a finding.

Added

V-96083

The Cisco router must only store cryptographic representations of passwords.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000620
Rule ID
SV-105221r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000171-NDM-000258
CCI
CCI-000196
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Network devices must enforce cryptographic representations of passwords when storing passwords in databases, configuration files, and log files. Passwords must be protected at all times; using a strong one-way hashing encryption algorithm with a salt is the standard method for providing a means to validate a password without having to store the actual password. Performance and time required to access are factors that must be considered, and the one way hash is the most feasible means of securing the password and providing an acceptable measure of password security. If passwords are stored in clear text, they can be plainly read and easily compromised. In many instances, verifying the user knows a password is performed using a password verifier. In its simplest form, a password verifier is a computational function that is capable of creating a hash of a password and determining if the value provided by the user matches the stored hash.

Fix Text

Configure the router to encrypt all passwords. R4(config)#service password-encryption R4(config)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if passwords are encrypted as shown in the example below. service password-encryption If the router is not configured to encrypt passwords, this is a finding.

Added

V-96089

The Cisco router must be configured to terminate all network connections associated with device management after 10 minutes of inactivity.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000720
Rule ID
SV-105227r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000190-NDM-000267
CCI
CCI-001133
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended. In addition, quickly terminating an idle session will also free up resources committed by the managed network element. Terminating network connections associated with communications sessions includes, for example, de-allocating associated TCP/IP address/port pairs at the operating system level, or de-allocating networking assignments at the application level if multiple application sessions are using a single, operating system-level network connection. This does not mean that the device terminates all sessions or network access; it only ends the inactive session and releases the resources associated with that session.

Fix Text

Set the idle timeout value to "10" minutes or less on all configured login classes as shown in the example below. R1(config)#line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 10 0 R1(config-line)#exit R1(config)#line con 0 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 10 0 R1(config-line)#exit R2(config)#ip http timeout-policy idle 600 life nnnn requests nn

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that all network connections associated with a device management have an idle timeout value set to 10 minutes or less as shown in the following example: ip http secure-server ip http timeout-policy idle 600 life nnnn requests nn … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 If the Cisco router is not configured to terminate all network connections associated with a device management after "10" minutes of inactivity, this is a finding.

Added

V-96103

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account enabling actions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000880
Rule ID
SV-105241r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000319-NDM-000283
CCI
CCI-002130
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies administrators and Information System Security Officers (ISSO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account enabling using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account enabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account enabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Added

V-96109

The Cisco router must be configured to audit the execution of privileged functions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000940
Rule ID
SV-105247r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000343-NDM-000289
CCI
CCI-002234
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised information system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider threats and the advanced persistent threat.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to log all commands entered from the command line interface as well as log all configuration changes as shown in the following example: R1(config)#logging userinfo R1(config)#archive R1(config-archive)#log config R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all commands entered from the command line interface as well as log all configuration changes. hostname R1 ! logging userinfo ! … … … archive log config logging enable ! Note: The logging userinfo global configuration command will generate a log when a user increases his or her privilege level. If the Cisco router is not configured to log all commands entered from the command line interface as well as log all configuration changes, this is a finding.

Added

V-96115

The Cisco router must be configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000980
Rule ID
SV-105253r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000357-NDM-000293
CCI
CCI-001849
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In order to ensure network devices have a sufficient storage capacity in which to write the audit logs, they need to be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. The task of allocating audit record storage capacity is usually performed during initial device setup if it is modifiable. The value for the organization-defined audit record storage requirement will depend on the amount of storage available on the network device, the anticipated volume of logs, the frequency of transfer from the network device to centralized log servers, and other factors.

Fix Text

Configure the buffer size for logging as shown in the example below. R2(config)#logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational

Check Content

Verify that the Cisco router is configured with a logging buffer size. The configuration should look like the example below: logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational If a logging buffer size is not configured, this is a finding. If the Cisco router is not configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements, this is a finding.

Added

V-96119

The Cisco router must be configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001000
Rule ID
SV-105257r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000360-NDM-000295
CCI
CCI-001858
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to send critical to emergency log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. 4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap critical Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e., error, warning, notice, informational).

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. logging trap critical logging x.x.x.x Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e., error, warning, notice, informational). Informational is the default severity level; hence, if the severity level is configured to informational, the logging trap command will not be shown in the configuration. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events, this is a finding.

Added

V-96121

The Cisco router must be configured to synchronize its clock with the primary and secondary time sources using redundant authoritative time sources.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001030
Rule ID
SV-105259r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000373-NDM-000298
CCI
CCI-001893
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The loss of connectivity to a particular authoritative time source will result in the loss of time synchronization (free-run mode) and increasingly inaccurate time stamps on audit events and other functions. Multiple time sources provide redundancy by including a secondary source. Time synchronization is usually a hierarchy; clients synchronize time to a local source while that source synchronizes its time to a more accurate source. The network device must utilize an authoritative time server and/or be configured to use redundant authoritative time sources. This requirement is related to the comparison done in CCI-001891. DoD-approved solutions consist of a combination of a primary and secondary time source using a combination or multiple instances of the following: a time server designated for the appropriate DoD network (NIPRNet/SIPRNet); United States Naval Observatory (USNO) time servers; and/or the Global Positioning System (GPS). The secondary time source must be located in a different geographic region than the primary time source.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x R2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below. ntp server x.x.x.x ntp server y.y.y.y If the Cisco router is not configured to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources, this is a finding.

Added

V-96123

The Cisco router must record time stamps for audit records that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001040
Rule ID
SV-105261r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000375-NDM-000300
CCI
CCI-001889
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without sufficient granularity of time stamps, it is not possible to adequately determine the chronological order of records. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Granularity of time measurements refers to the degree of synchronization between information system clocks and reference clocks.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to record time stamps that meet a granularity of one second as shown in the example below. R2(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. service timestamps log datetime If the router is not configured to record time stamps that meet a granularity of one second, this is a finding.

Added

V-96125

The Cisco router must be configured to record time stamps for log records that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001050
Rule ID
SV-105263r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000374-NDM-000299
CCI
CCI-001890
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in UTC, a modern continuation of GMT, or local time with an offset from UTC.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to record time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to UTC or GMT as shown in the example below. R2(config)#clock timezone EST -5 R2(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. service timestamps log datetime localtime ! hostname R2 … … … clock timezone EST -5 Note: UTC is the default; hence, the command set time-zone may not be seen in the configuration. This can be verified using the show system uptime command. If the router is not configured to record time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to UTC GMT, this is a finding.

Added

V-96135

The Cisco router must be configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC).

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001130
Rule ID
SV-105273r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000310
CCI
CCI-001967
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without authenticating devices, unidentified or unknown devices may be introduced, thereby facilitating malicious activity. Bidirectional authentication provides stronger safeguards to validate the identity of other devices for connections that are of greater risk. A local connection is any connection with a device communicating without the use of a network. A network connection is any connection with a device that communicates through a network (e.g., local area or wide area network, Internet). A remote connection is any connection with a device communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Because of the challenges of applying this requirement on a large scale, organizations are encouraged to only apply the requirement to those limited number (and type) of devices that truly need to support this capability.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to authenticate SNMP messages as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE R4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxxx R4(config)#snmp-server view V3READ iso included R4(config)#snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included R4(config)#snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Authentication used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below. R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: None Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco router is not configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated HMAC, this is a finding.

Added

V-96137

The Cisco router must be configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001140
Rule ID
SV-105275r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000310
CCI
CCI-000068
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without the strong encryption that is provided by the SNMP Version 3 User-based Security Model (USM), an unauthorized user can gain access to network management information that can be used to create a network outage.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE R4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxx priv aes 256 xxxxxx

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Encryption used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below. R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: AES256 Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco router is not configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

Added

V-96139

The Cisco router must be configured to authenticate Network Time Protocol (NTP) sources using authentication that is cryptographically based.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001150
Rule ID
SV-105277r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000347
CCI
CCI-001967
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If Network Time Protocol is not authenticated, an attacker can introduce a rogue NTP server. This rogue server can then be used to send incorrect time information to network devices, which will make log timestamps inaccurate and affect scheduled actions. NTP authentication is used to prevent this tampering by authenticating the time source.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ntp authenticate R2(config)#ntp authentication-key 1 md5 xxxxxx R2(config)#ntp trusted-key 1 R2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 R2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y key 1

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below. ntp authentication-key 1 md5 121B0A151012 7 ntp authenticate ntp trusted-key 1 ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 ntp server y.y.y.y key 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based, this is a finding.

Added

V-96145

The Cisco router must be configured to use FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001200
Rule ID
SV-105283r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000411-NDM-000330
CCI
CCI-002890
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Unapproved mechanisms that are used for authentication to the cryptographic module are not verified and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and DoD data may be compromised. Nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. Currently, HMAC is the only FIPS-approved algorithm for generating and verifying message/data authentication codes in accordance with FIPS 198-1. Products that are FIPS 140-2 validated will have an HMAC that meets specification; however, the option must be configured for use as the only message authentication code used for authentication to cryptographic modules.

Fix Text

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured. Configure SSH and HTTPs to use FIPS-validated HMAC for remote maintenance sessions as shown in the following examples: SSH Example R1(config)#ip ssh version 2 R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha1-96 HTTPS Example R2(config)#ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. SSH Example ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha1-96 HTTPS Example ip http secure-server ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha ip http secure-client-auth ip http secure-trustpoint CA_XXX If the Cisco router is not configured to use FIPS-validated HMAC to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions, this is a finding.

Added

V-96147

The Cisco router must be configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001210
Rule ID
SV-105285r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000412-NDM-000331
CCI
CCI-003123
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

This requires the use of secure protocols instead of their unsecured counterparts, such as SSH instead of telnet, SCP instead of FTP, and HTTPS instead of HTTP. If unsecured protocols (lacking cryptographic mechanisms) are used for sessions, the contents of those sessions will be susceptible to eavesdropping, potentially putting sensitive data (including administrator passwords) at risk of compromise and potentially allowing hijacking of maintenance sessions.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the examples below. SSH Example R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes128-ctr aes192-cbc aes192-ctr HTTPS Example R2(config)#ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. SSH Example ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes128-ctr aes192-cbc aes192-ctr HTTPS Example ip http secure-server ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha ip http secure-client-auth ip http secure-trustpoint CA_XXX If the router is not configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

Added

V-96149

The Cisco router must be configured to protect against known types of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks by employing organization-defined security safeguards.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001220
Rule ID
SV-105287r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000435-NDM-000315
CCI
CCI-002385
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

DoS is a condition when a resource is not available for legitimate users. When this occurs, the organization either cannot accomplish its mission or must operate at degraded capacity. This requirement addresses the configuration of network devices to mitigate the impact of DoS attacks that have occurred or are ongoing on device availability. For each network device, known and potential DoS attacks must be identified and solutions for each type implemented. A variety of technologies exist to limit or, in some cases, eliminate the effects of DoS attacks (e.g., limiting processes or restricting the number of sessions the device opens at one time). Employing increased capacity and bandwidth, combined with service redundancy, may reduce the susceptibility to some DoS attacks. The security safeguards cannot be defined at the DoD level because they vary according to the capabilities of the individual network devices and the security controls applied on the adjacent networks (e.g., firewalls performing packet filtering to block DoS attacks).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to protect against known types of DoS attacks on the route processor. Implementing a CoPP policy as shown in the example below is a best practice method. Step 1: Configure ACLs specific traffic types. R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark our control plane adjacencies are critical R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ospf host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ospf host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit pim host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit pim host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit igmp any 224.0.0.0 15.255.255.255 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host x.x.x.x eq bgp host x.x.x.x R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host x.x.x.x eq tacacs any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp x.x.x.x 0.0.0.255 any eq 22 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp host x.x.x.x any eq snmp R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp host x.x.x.x eq ntp any R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark we will want to rate limit ICMP traffic R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any echo R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any echo-reply R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any time-exceeded R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any unreachable R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark management plane traffic that should not be received R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp any any eq ntp R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp any any eq snmp R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp any any eq 22 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp any any eq 23 R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark control plane traffic not configured on router R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit eigrp any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp any any eq rip R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit Step 2: Configure class maps referencing each of the ACLs. R1(config)#class-map match-all CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-any CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-cmap)#match protocol arp R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-all CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-any CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-all CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-cmap)#exit Step 3: Configure a policy map referencing the configured class maps and apply appropriate bandwidth allowance and policing attributes. R1(config)#policy-map CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY R1(config-pmap)#class CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-pmap-c)#police 512000 8000 conform-action transmit exceed-action transmit R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-pmap-c)#police 256000 4000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-pmap-c)#police 128000 2000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-pmap-c)#police 8000 1000 conform-action drop exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-pmap-c)#police 64000 1000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#exit R1(config-pmap-c)#exit R1(config-pmap)#exit Step 4: Apply the policy map to the control plane. R1(config)#control-plane R1(config-cp)#service-policy input CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY R1(config-cp)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: Verify traffic types have been classified based on importance levels. The following is an example configuration: class-map match-all CoPP_CRITICAL match access-group name CoPP_CRITICAL class-map match-any CoPP_IMPORTANT match access-group name CoPP_IMPORTANT match protocol arp class-map match-all CoPP_NORMAL match access-group name CoPP_NORMAL class-map match-any CoPP_UNDESIRABLE match access-group name CoPP_UNDESIRABLE class-map match-all CoPP_DEFAULT match access-group name CoPP_DEFAULT Step 2: Review the ACLs referenced by the class maps to determine if the traffic is being classified appropriately. The following is an example configuration: ip access-list extended CoPP_CRITICAL remark our control plane adjacencies are critical permit ospf host [OSPF neighbor A] any permit ospf host [OSPF neighbor B] any permit pim host [PIM neighbor A] any permit pim host [PIM neighbor B] any permit pim host [RP addr] any permit igmp any 224.0.0.0 15.255.255.255 permit tcp host [BGP neighbor] eq bgp host [local BGP addr] permit tcp host [BGP neighbor] host [local BGP addr] eq bgp deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_IMPORTANT permit tcp host [TACACS server] eq tacacs any permit tcp [management subnet] 0.0.0.255 any eq 22 permit udp host [SNMP manager] any eq snmp permit udp host [NTP server] eq ntp any deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_NORMAL remark we will want to rate limit ICMP traffic permit icmp any any echo permit icmp any any echo-reply permit icmp any any time-exceeded permit icmp any any unreachable deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_UNDESIRABLE remark other management plane traffic that should not be received permit udp any any eq ntp permit udp any any eq snmp permit tcp any any eq 22 permit tcp any any eq 23 remark other control plane traffic not configured on router permit eigrp any any permit udp any any eq rip deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_DEFAULT permit ip any any Note: Explicitly defining undesirable traffic with ACL entries enables the network operator to collect statistics. Excessive ARP packets can potentially monopolize Route Processor resources, starving other important processes. Currently, ARP is the only Layer 2 protocol that can be specifically classified using the match protocol command. Step 3: Review the policy-map to determine if the traffic is being policed appropriately for each classification. The following is an example configuration: policy-map CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY class CoPP_CRITICAL police 512000 8000 conform-action transmit exceed-action transmit class CoPP_IMPORTANT police 256000 4000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop class CoPP_NORMAL police 128000 2000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop class CoPP_UNDESIRABLE police 8000 1000 conform-action drop exceed-action drop class CoPP_DEFAULT police 64000 1000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop Step 4: Verify that the CoPP policy is enabled. The following is an example configuration: control-plane service-policy input CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY Note: Control Plane Protection (CPPr) can be used to filter as well as police control plane traffic destined to the RP. CPPr is very similar to CoPP and has the ability to filter and police traffic using finer granularity by dividing the aggregate control plane into three separate categories: (1) host, (2) transit, and (3) CEF-exception. Hence, a separate policy-map could be configured for each traffic category. If the Cisco router is not configured to protect against known types of DoS attacks by employing organization-defined security safeguards, this is a finding.

Added

V-96151

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are modified.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001240
Rule ID
SV-105289r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000495-NDM-000318
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when account privileges are modified as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging userinfo R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. hostname R4 ! ! logging userinfo … … … archive log config logging enable Note: The logging userinfo command will log when the administrator increases his or her privilege level while the log config command will log all configuration changes such as changing privilege levels for certain commands. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are modified, this is a finding.

Added

V-96153

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001250
Rule ID
SV-105291r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000499-NDM-000319
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. archive log config logging enable If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted, this is a finding.

Added

V-96155

The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001260
Rule ID
SV-105293r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000503-NDM-000320
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur as shown in the example below. R5(config)#login on-failure log R5(config)#login on-success log

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. login on-failure log login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur, this is a finding.

Added

V-96157

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records for privileged activities.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001270
Rule ID
SV-105295r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000504-NDM-000321
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records for privileged activities as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example configurations below. archive log config logging enable If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records for privileged activities, this is a finding.

Added

V-96159

The Cisco router must generate audit records showing starting and ending time for administrator access to the system.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001280
Rule ID
SV-105297r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000505-NDM-000322
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

Added

V-96161

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001290
Rule ID
SV-105299r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000506-NDM-000323
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur as shown in the example below. R5(config)#login on-success log

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur, this is a finding.

Added

V-96163

The Cisco router must be configured to off-load log records onto a different system than the system being audited.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001310
Rule ID
SV-105301r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000515-NDM-000325
CCI
CCI-001851
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to send log records to a syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the Cisco router is not configured to off-load log records onto a different system than the system being audited, this is a finding.

Added

V-96169

The Cisco router must be configured to use an authentication server for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001370
Rule ID
SV-105307r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000336
CCI
CCI-000370
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Centralized management of user accounts and authentication increases the administrative access to the router. This control is particularly important protection against the insider threat. With robust centralized management, audit records for administrator account access to the organization's network devices can be more readily analyzed for trends and anomalies. The alternative method of defining administrator accounts on each device exposes the device configuration to remote access authentication attacks and system administrators with multiple authenticators for each network device.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the Cisco router is not configured to use an authentication server for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access, this is a finding.

Added

V-96177

The Cisco router must be configured to back up the configuration when changes occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001410
Rule ID
SV-105315r2_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000340
CCI
CCI-000537
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

System-level information includes default and customized settings and security attributes, including ACLs that relate to the network device configuration, as well as software required for the execution and operation of the device. Information system backup is a critical step in ensuring system integrity and availability. If the system fails and there is no backup of the system-level information, a denial of service condition is possible for all who utilize this critical network component. This control requires the network device to support the organizational central backup process for system-level information associated with the network device. This function may be provided by the network device itself; however, the preferred best practice is a centralized backup rather than each network device performing discrete backups.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to send the configuration to an TFTP or FTP server when a configuration change occurs as shown in the example below. R4(config)#event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG R4(config-applet)#event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" R4(config-applet)#action 1 cli command "enable" R4(config-applet)#action 2 info type routername R4(config-applet)#action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" R4(config-applet)#action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" R4(config-applet)#action 5 cli command "$_info_routername-config" R4(config-applet)#action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" R4(config-applet)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The example configuration below will send the configuration to a TFTP server when a configuration change occurs. event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" action 1 info type routername action 2 cli command "enable" action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" action 5 cli command "$_info_routername-config" action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" If the Cisco router is not configured to conduct backups of the configuration when changes occur, this is a finding.

Added

V-96181

The Cisco router must be configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001440
Rule ID
SV-105319r2_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000344
CCI
CCI-001159
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

For user certificates, each organization obtains certificates from an approved, shared service provider, as required by OMB policy. For federal agencies operating a legacy public key infrastructure cross-certified with the Federal Bridge Certification Authority at medium assurance or higher, this Certification Authority will suffice.

Fix Text

Configure the router to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider as shown in the example below. R2(config)# crypto pki trustpoint CA_X R2(ca-trustpoint)#enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if a CA trust point has been configured. The CA trust point will contain the URL of the CA in which the router has enrolled with. Verify this is a DoD or DoD-approved CA. This will ensure the router has enrolled and received a certificate from a trusted CA. The CA trust point configuration would look similar to the example below. crypto pki trustpoint CA_X enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com Note: A remote end-point's certificate will always be validated by the router by verifying the signature of the CA on the certificate using the CA's public key, which is contained in the router's certificate it received at enrollment. Note: This requirement is not applicable if the router does not have any public key certificates. If the Cisco router is not configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider, this is a finding.

Added

V-96183

The Cisco router must be configured to send log data to a syslog server for the purpose of forwarding alerts to the administrators and the ISSO.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001450
Rule ID
SV-105321r3_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000350
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The aggregation of log data kept on a syslog server can be used to detect attacks and trigger an alert to the appropriate security personnel. The stored log data can used to detect weaknesses in security that enable the network IA team to find and address these weaknesses before breaches can occur. Reviewing these logs, whether before or after a security breach, are important in showing whether someone is an internal employee or an outside threat.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

Verify that the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the router is not configured to send log data to the syslog server, this is a finding.

Added

V-96187

The Cisco router must be running an IOS release that is currently supported by Cisco Systems.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001470
Rule ID
SV-105325r2_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000351
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Network devices running an unsupported operating system lack current security fixes required to mitigate the risks associated with recent vulnerabilities. Running a supported release also enables operations to maintain a stable and reliable network provided by improved quality of service and security features.

Fix Text

Upgrade the router to a supported release.

Check Content

Verify that the router is in compliance with this requirement by having the router administrator enter the following command: show version Verify that the release is still supported by Cisco. All releases supported by Cisco can be found on the following URL: www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/ios-nx-os-software If the router is not running a supported release, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215662

The Cisco router must be configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000010
Rule ID
SV-215662r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000001-NDM-000200
CCI
CCI-000054
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Device management includes the ability to control the number of administrators and management sessions that manage a device. Limiting the number of allowed administrators and sessions per administrator based on account type, role, or access type is helpful in limiting risks related to DoS attacks. This requirement addresses concurrent sessions for administrative accounts and does not address concurrent sessions by a single administrator via multiple administrative accounts. The maximum number of concurrent sessions should be defined based upon mission needs and the operational environment for each system. At a minimum, limits must be set for SSH, HTTPS, account of last resort, and root account sessions.

Fix Text

Configure the router to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number as shown in the example below. ip http max-connections 2 line vty 0 4 session-limit 2

Check Content

Note: This requirement is not applicable to file transfer actions such as FTP, SCP and SFTP. Review the router configuration to determine if concurrent management sessions are limited as show in the example below: ip http secure-server ip http max-connections 2 … … … line vty 0 4 session-limit 2 transport input ssh If the router is not configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215663

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account creation.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000090
Rule ID
SV-215663r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000026-NDM-000208
CCI
CCI-000018
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Upon gaining access to a network device, an attacker will often first attempt to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is to create a new account. Notification of account creation helps to mitigate this risk. Auditing account creation provides the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. Without this audit trail, personnel without the proper authorization may gain access to critical network nodes.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account creation using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account creation. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account creation is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215664

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account modification.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000100
Rule ID
SV-215664r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000027-NDM-000209
CCI
CCI-001403
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Account management by a designated authority ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel with the appropriate and necessary privileges. Auditing account modification along with an automatic notification to appropriate individuals will provide the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. If modifications to management accounts are not audited, reconciliation of account management procedures cannot be tracked.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account modification using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account modification. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account modification is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215665

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account disabling actions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000110
Rule ID
SV-215665r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000028-NDM-000210
CCI
CCI-001404
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account disabling actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are disabled, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account disabling using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account disabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account disabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215666

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account removal actions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000120
Rule ID
SV-215666r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000029-NDM-000211
CCI
CCI-001405
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account removal actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are terminated, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account removal using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account removal. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account removal is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215667

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000140
Rule ID
SV-215667r538988_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000038-NDM-000213
CCI
CCI-001368
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

A mechanism to detect and prevent unauthorized communication flow must be configured or provided as part of the system design. If management information flow is not enforced based on approved authorizations, the network device may become compromised. Information flow control regulates where management information is allowed to travel within a network device. The flow of all management information must be monitored and controlled so it does not introduce any unacceptable risk to the network device or data. Application-specific examples of enforcement occur in systems that employ rule sets or establish configuration settings that restrict information system services or message-filtering capability based on message content (e.g., implementing key word searches or using document characteristics). Applications providing information flow control must be able to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the system in accordance with applicable policy.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to restrict management access to specific IP addresses via SSH as shown in the example below. SW2(config)#ip access-list standard MANAGEMENT_NET SW2(config-std-nacl)#permit x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 SW2(config-std-nacl)#exit SW2(config)#line vty 0 4 SW2(config-line)#transport input ssh SW2(config-line)#access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in SW2(config-line)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: Verify that the line vty has an ACL inbound applied as shown in the example below. line vty 0 4 access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in transport input ssh Step 2: Verify that the ACL permits only hosts from the management network to access the router. ip access-list extended MANAGEMENT_NET permit ip x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 any deny ip any any log-input If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215668

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, after which time it must lock out the user account from accessing the device for 15 minutes.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000150
Rule ID
SV-215668r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000065-NDM-000214
CCI
CCI-000044
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below. R2(config)#login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it enforces the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below. login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120 Note: The configuration example above will block any login attempt for 15 minutes after three consecutive invalid logon attempts within a two-minute period. If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215669

The Cisco router must be configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000160
Rule ID
SV-215669r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000068-NDM-000215
CCI
CCI-000048
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Display of the DoD-approved use notification before granting access to the network device ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. System use notifications are required only for access via logon interfaces with human users.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access as shown in the following example: R1(config)#banner login # Enter TEXT message. End with the character '#'. You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. # R1(config)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. banner login ^C You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. ^C If the Cisco router is not configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215670

The Cisco router must be configured to protect against an individual falsely denying having performed organization-defined actions to be covered by non-repudiation.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000210
Rule ID
SV-215670r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000080-NDM-000345
CCI
CCI-000166
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

This requirement supports non-repudiation of actions taken by an administrator and is required in order to maintain the integrity of the configuration management process. All configuration changes to the network device are logged, and administrators authenticate with two-factor authentication before gaining administrative access. Together, these processes will ensure the administrators can be held accountable for the configuration changes they implement. To meet this requirement, the network device must log administrator access and activity.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log administrator activity as shown in the example below. R1(config)#logging userinfo R1(config)#archive R1(config-archive)#log config R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. hostname R1 ! logging userinfo ! … … … archive log config logging enable ! Note: The logging userinfo global configuration command will generate a log when a user increases his or her privilege level. If logging of administrator activity is not configured, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215671

The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to log on with access privileges occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000250
Rule ID
SV-215671r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000091-NDM-000223
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to log all logon attempts as shown in the example below. R1(config)#login on-failure log R1(config)#login on-success log R1(config)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all logon attempts. login on-failure log login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to logon, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215672

The Cisco router must produce audit records containing information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000280
Rule ID
SV-215672r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000096-NDM-000226
CCI
CCI-000131
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

It is essential for security personnel to know what is being done, what was attempted, where it was done, when it was done, and by whom it was done in order to compile an accurate risk assessment. Logging the date and time of each detected event provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured network device. In order to establish and correlate the series of events leading up to an outage or attack, it is imperative the date and time are recorded in all log records.

Fix Text

Configure the router to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the example below. R1(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

Check Content

Verify that the router is configured to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the configuration example below. service timestamps log datetime localtime If time stamps is not configured, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215673

The Cisco router must produce audit records containing information to establish where the events occurred.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000290
Rule ID
SV-215673r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000097-NDM-000227
CCI
CCI-000132
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know where events occurred, such as device hardware components, device software modules, session identifiers, filenames, host names, and functionality. Associating information about where the event occurred within the network device provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured device.

Fix Text

Configure the log-input parameter after any deny statements to provide the location as to where packets have been dropped via an ACL. R1(config)#ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny icmp any any log-input

Check Content

Review the deny statements in all ACLs to determine if the log-input parameter has been configured as shown in the example below. ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND deny icmp any any log-input If the router is not configured with the log-input parameter after any deny statements to note where packets have been dropped via an ACL, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215674

The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records containing the full-text recording of privileged commands.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000330
Rule ID
SV-215674r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000101-NDM-000231
CCI
CCI-000135
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. Organizations consider limiting the additional audit information to only that information explicitly needed for specific audit requirements. The additional information required is dependent on the type of information (i.e., sensitivity of the data and the environment within which it resides). At a minimum, the organization must audit full-text recording of privileged commands. The organization must maintain audit trails in sufficient detail to reconstruct events to determine the cause and impact of compromise.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to log all configuration changes as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all configuration changes. archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records of configuration changes, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215675

The Cisco router must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized modification.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000380
Rule ID
SV-215675r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000119-NDM-000236
CCI
CCI-000163
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit network device activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized modification. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions and limiting log data locations. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the modification of audit data.

Fix Text

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215676

The Cisco router must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized deletion.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000390
Rule ID
SV-215676r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000120-NDM-000237
CCI
CCI-000164
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include: ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections, restricting access, and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit data.

Fix Text

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215677

The Cisco router must be configured to limit privileges to change the software resident within software libraries.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000460
Rule ID
SV-215677r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000133-NDM-000244
CCI
CCI-001499
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Changes to any software components of the network device can have significant effects on the overall security of the network. Therefore, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed administrative access to the network device for implementing any changes or upgrades. If the network device were to enable non-authorized users to make changes to software libraries, those changes could be implemented without undergoing testing, validation, and approval.

Fix Text

Configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

Check Content

Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215678

The Cisco router must be configured to prohibit the use of all unnecessary and nonsecure functions and services.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000470
Rule ID
SV-215678r521266_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000142-NDM-000245
CCI
CCI-000382
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Network devices are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the network device must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports, protocols, and/or services to only those required, authorized, and approved. Some network devices have capabilities enabled by default; if these capabilities are not necessary, they must be disabled. If a particular capability is used, then it must be documented and approved.

Fix Text

Disable the following services if enabled as shown in the example below. R2(config)#no boot network R2(config)#no ip boot server R2(config)#no ip bootp server R2(config)#no ip dns server R2(config)#no ip identd R2(config)#no ip finger R2(config)#no ip http server R2(config)#no ip rcmd rcp-enable R2(config)#no ip rcmd rsh-enable R2(config)#no service config R2(config)#no service finger R2(config)#no service tcp-small-servers R2(config)#no service udp-small-servers R2(config)#no service pad R2(config)#end

Check Content

Verify that the router does not have any unnecessary or non-secure ports, protocols and services enabled. For example, the following commands should not be in the configuration: boot network ip boot server ip bootp server ip dns server ip identd ip finger ip http server ip rcmd rcp-enable ip rcmd rsh-enable service config service finger service tcp-small-servers service udp-small-servers If any unnecessary or non-secure ports, protocols, or services are enabled, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215679

The Cisco router must be configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000490
Rule ID
SV-215679r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000148-NDM-000346
CCI
CCI-002111
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Authentication for administrative (privileged level) access to the device is required at all times. An account can be created on the device's local database for use when the authentication server is down or connectivity between the device and the authentication server is not operable. This account is referred to as the account of last resort since it is intended to be used as a last resort and when immediate administrative access is absolutely necessary. The account of last resort logon credentials must be stored in a sealed envelope and kept in a safe. The safe must be periodically audited to verify the envelope remains sealed. The signature of the auditor and the date of the audit should be added to the envelope as a record. Administrators should secure the credentials and disable the root account (if possible) when not needed for system administration functions.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure a local account as shown in the example below. R2(config)#username xxxxxxxxx privilege nn secret xxxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the local account if the authentication server is not reachable as shown in the following example: R2(config)#aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local

Check Content

Step 1: Review the router configuration to verify that a local account for last resort has been configured with a privilege level that will enable the administrator to troubleshoot connectivity to the authentication server. username xxxxxxxxxxx privilege 10 common-criteria-policy PASSWORD_POLICY password xxxxxxxxxx Note: The configured Common Criteria policy must be used when creating or changing the local account password as shown in the example above. Step 2: Verify that local is defined after radius or tacacs+ in the authentication order as shown in the example below: aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local If the router is not configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215680

The Cisco router must be configured to implement replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000530
Rule ID
SV-215680r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000156-NDM-000250
CCI
CCI-001941
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

A replay attack may enable an unauthorized user to gain access to the application. Authentication sessions between the authenticator and the application validating the user credentials must not be vulnerable to a replay attack. An authentication process resists replay attacks if it is impractical to achieve a successful authentication by recording and replaying a previous authentication message. Techniques used to address this include protocols using nonces (e.g., numbers generated for a specific one-time use) or challenges (e.g., TLS, WS_Security). Additional techniques include time-synchronous or challenge-response one-time authenticators.

Fix Text

Configure SSH to use FIPS-140-2 compliant HMACs as shown in the example below. R1(config)#ip ssh version 2 R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes192-cbc aes192-ctr Note: An SSH configuration enables a server and client to authorize the negotiation of only those algorithms that are configured from the allowed list. If a user tries to negotiate using an algorithm that is not part of the allowed list, the request is rejected and the session is not established.

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that SSH is configured to use FIPS-140-2 compliant HMACs as shown in the example below. ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes192-cbc aes192-ctr Note: An SSH configuration enables a server and client to authorize the negotiation of only those algorithms that are configured from the allowed list. If a remote party tries to negotiate using an algorithm that is not part of the allowed list, the request is rejected and the session is not established. If the router is not configured to implement replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215681

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000550
Rule ID
SV-215681r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000164-NDM-000252
CCI
CCI-000205
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce a minimum 15-character password length as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#min-length 15 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY min-length 15 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215682

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000570
Rule ID
SV-215682r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000166-NDM-000254
CCI
CCI-000192
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex passwords helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#upper-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY upper-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215683

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000580
Rule ID
SV-215683r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000167-NDM-000255
CCI
CCI-000193
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#lower-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY lower-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215684

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000590
Rule ID
SV-215684r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000168-NDM-000256
CCI
CCI-000194
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#numeric-count 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY numeric-count 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215685

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000600
Rule ID
SV-215685r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000169-NDM-000257
CCI
CCI-001619
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#special-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY special-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215686

The Cisco router must be configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000610
Rule ID
SV-215686r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000170-NDM-000329
CCI
CCI-000195
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of passwords, this increases the chances of password compromise by increasing the window of opportunity for attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. The number of changed characters refers to the number of changes required with respect to the total number of positions in the current password. In other words, characters may be the same within the two passwords; however, the positions of the like characters must be different. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#char-changes 8 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY char-changes 8 If the Cisco router is not configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215687

The Cisco router must only store cryptographic representations of passwords.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000620
Rule ID
SV-215687r521266_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000171-NDM-000258
CCI
CCI-000196
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Network devices must enforce cryptographic representations of passwords when storing passwords in databases, configuration files, and log files. Passwords must be protected at all times; using a strong one-way hashing encryption algorithm with a salt is the standard method for providing a means to validate a password without having to store the actual password. Performance and time required to access are factors that must be considered, and the one way hash is the most feasible means of securing the password and providing an acceptable measure of password security. If passwords are stored in clear text, they can be plainly read and easily compromised. In many instances, verifying the user knows a password is performed using a password verifier. In its simplest form, a password verifier is a computational function that is capable of creating a hash of a password and determining if the value provided by the user matches the stored hash.

Fix Text

Configure the router to encrypt all passwords. R4(config)#service password-encryption R4(config)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if passwords are encrypted as shown in the example below. service password-encryption If the router is not configured to encrypt passwords, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215688

The Cisco router must be configured to terminate all network connections associated with device management after 10 minutes of inactivity.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000720
Rule ID
SV-215688r521266_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000190-NDM-000267
CCI
CCI-001133
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended. In addition, quickly terminating an idle session will also free up resources committed by the managed network element. Terminating network connections associated with communications sessions includes, for example, de-allocating associated TCP/IP address/port pairs at the operating system level, or de-allocating networking assignments at the application level if multiple application sessions are using a single, operating system-level network connection. This does not mean that the device terminates all sessions or network access; it only ends the inactive session and releases the resources associated with that session.

Fix Text

Set the idle timeout value to "10" minutes or less on all configured login classes as shown in the example below. R1(config)#line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 10 0 R1(config-line)#exit R1(config)#line con 0 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 10 0 R1(config-line)#exit R2(config)#ip http timeout-policy idle 600 life nnnn requests nn

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that all network connections associated with a device management have an idle timeout value set to 10 minutes or less as shown in the following example: ip http secure-server ip http timeout-policy idle 600 life nnnn requests nn … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 If the Cisco router is not configured to terminate all network connections associated with a device management after "10" minutes of inactivity, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215689

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account enabling actions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000880
Rule ID
SV-215689r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000319-NDM-000283
CCI
CCI-002130
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies administrators and Information System Security Officers (ISSO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account enabling using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account enabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account enabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215690

The Cisco router must be configured to audit the execution of privileged functions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000940
Rule ID
SV-215690r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000343-NDM-000289
CCI
CCI-002234
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised information system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider threats and the advanced persistent threat.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to log all commands entered from the command line interface as well as log all configuration changes as shown in the following example: R1(config)#logging userinfo R1(config)#archive R1(config-archive)#log config R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all commands entered from the command line interface as well as log all configuration changes. hostname R1 ! logging userinfo ! … … … archive log config logging enable ! Note: The logging userinfo global configuration command will generate a log when a user increases his or her privilege level. If the Cisco router is not configured to log all commands entered from the command line interface as well as log all configuration changes, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215691

The Cisco router must be configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000980
Rule ID
SV-215691r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000357-NDM-000293
CCI
CCI-001849
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In order to ensure network devices have a sufficient storage capacity in which to write the audit logs, they need to be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. The task of allocating audit record storage capacity is usually performed during initial device setup if it is modifiable. The value for the organization-defined audit record storage requirement will depend on the amount of storage available on the network device, the anticipated volume of logs, the frequency of transfer from the network device to centralized log servers, and other factors.

Fix Text

Configure the buffer size for logging as shown in the example below. R2(config)#logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational

Check Content

Verify that the Cisco router is configured with a logging buffer size. The configuration should look like the example below: logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational If a logging buffer size is not configured, this is a finding. If the Cisco router is not configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215692

The Cisco router must be configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001000
Rule ID
SV-215692r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000360-NDM-000295
CCI
CCI-001858
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to send critical to emergency log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. 4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap critical Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e., error, warning, notice, informational).

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. logging trap critical logging x.x.x.x Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e., error, warning, notice, informational). Informational is the default severity level; hence, if the severity level is configured to informational, the logging trap command will not be shown in the configuration. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215693

The Cisco router must be configured to synchronize its clock with the primary and secondary time sources using redundant authoritative time sources.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001030
Rule ID
SV-215693r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000373-NDM-000298
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The loss of connectivity to a particular authoritative time source will result in the loss of time synchronization (free-run mode) and increasingly inaccurate time stamps on audit events and other functions. Multiple time sources provide redundancy by including a secondary source. Time synchronization is usually a hierarchy; clients synchronize time to a local source while that source synchronizes its time to a more accurate source. The network device must utilize an authoritative time server and/or be configured to use redundant authoritative time sources. This requirement is related to the comparison done in CCI-001891. DoD-approved solutions consist of a combination of a primary and secondary time source using a combination or multiple instances of the following: a time server designated for the appropriate DoD network (NIPRNet/SIPRNet); United States Naval Observatory (USNO) time servers; and/or the Global Positioning System (GPS). The secondary time source must be located in a different geographic region than the primary time source.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x R2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below. ntp server x.x.x.x ntp server y.y.y.y If the Cisco router is not configured to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215694

The Cisco router must record time stamps for audit records that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001040
Rule ID
SV-215694r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000375-NDM-000300
CCI
CCI-001889
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without sufficient granularity of time stamps, it is not possible to adequately determine the chronological order of records. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Granularity of time measurements refers to the degree of synchronization between information system clocks and reference clocks.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to record time stamps that meet a granularity of one second as shown in the example below. R2(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. service timestamps log datetime If the router is not configured to record time stamps that meet a granularity of one second, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215695

The Cisco router must be configured to record time stamps for log records that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001050
Rule ID
SV-215695r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000374-NDM-000299
CCI
CCI-001890
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in UTC, a modern continuation of GMT, or local time with an offset from UTC.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to record time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to UTC or GMT as shown in the example below. R2(config)#clock timezone EST -5 R2(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. service timestamps log datetime localtime ! hostname R2 … … … clock timezone EST -5 Note: UTC is the default; hence, the command set time-zone may not be seen in the configuration. This can be verified using the show system uptime command. If the router is not configured to record time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to UTC GMT, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215696

The Cisco router must be configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC).

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001130
Rule ID
SV-215696r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000310
CCI
CCI-001967
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without authenticating devices, unidentified or unknown devices may be introduced, thereby facilitating malicious activity. Bidirectional authentication provides stronger safeguards to validate the identity of other devices for connections that are of greater risk. A local connection is any connection with a device communicating without the use of a network. A network connection is any connection with a device that communicates through a network (e.g., local area or wide area network, Internet). A remote connection is any connection with a device communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Because of the challenges of applying this requirement on a large scale, organizations are encouraged to only apply the requirement to those limited number (and type) of devices that truly need to support this capability.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to authenticate SNMP messages as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE R4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxxx R4(config)#snmp-server view V3READ iso included R4(config)#snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included R4(config)#snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Authentication used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below. R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: None Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco router is not configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated HMAC, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215697

The Cisco router must be configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001140
Rule ID
SV-215697r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000310
CCI
CCI-000068
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without the strong encryption that is provided by the SNMP Version 3 User-based Security Model (USM), an unauthorized user can gain access to network management information that can be used to create a network outage.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE R4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxx priv aes 256 xxxxxx

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Encryption used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below. R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: AES256 Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco router is not configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215698

The Cisco router must be configured to authenticate Network Time Protocol (NTP) sources using authentication that is cryptographically based.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001150
Rule ID
SV-215698r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000347
CCI
CCI-001967
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If Network Time Protocol is not authenticated, an attacker can introduce a rogue NTP server. This rogue server can then be used to send incorrect time information to network devices, which will make log timestamps inaccurate and affect scheduled actions. NTP authentication is used to prevent this tampering by authenticating the time source.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ntp authenticate R2(config)#ntp authentication-key 1 md5 xxxxxx R2(config)#ntp trusted-key 1 R2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 R2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y key 1

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below. ntp authentication-key 1 md5 121B0A151012 7 ntp authenticate ntp trusted-key 1 ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 ntp server y.y.y.y key 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215699

The Cisco router must be configured to use FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001200
Rule ID
SV-215699r521266_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000411-NDM-000330
CCI
CCI-002890
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Unapproved mechanisms that are used for authentication to the cryptographic module are not verified and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and DoD data may be compromised. Nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. Currently, HMAC is the only FIPS-approved algorithm for generating and verifying message/data authentication codes in accordance with FIPS 198-1. Products that are FIPS 140-2 validated will have an HMAC that meets specification; however, the option must be configured for use as the only message authentication code used for authentication to cryptographic modules.

Fix Text

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured. Configure SSH and HTTPs to use FIPS-validated HMAC for remote maintenance sessions as shown in the following examples: SSH Example R1(config)#ip ssh version 2 R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha1-96 HTTPS Example R2(config)#ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. SSH Example ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha1-96 HTTPS Example ip http secure-server ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha ip http secure-client-auth ip http secure-trustpoint CA_XXX If the Cisco router is not configured to use FIPS-validated HMAC to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215700

The Cisco router must be configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001210
Rule ID
SV-215700r521266_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000412-NDM-000331
CCI
CCI-003123
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

This requires the use of secure protocols instead of their unsecured counterparts, such as SSH instead of telnet, SCP instead of FTP, and HTTPS instead of HTTP. If unsecured protocols (lacking cryptographic mechanisms) are used for sessions, the contents of those sessions will be susceptible to eavesdropping, potentially putting sensitive data (including administrator passwords) at risk of compromise and potentially allowing hijacking of maintenance sessions.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the examples below. SSH Example R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes128-ctr aes192-cbc aes192-ctr HTTPS Example R2(config)#ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. SSH Example ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes128-ctr aes192-cbc aes192-ctr HTTPS Example ip http secure-server ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha ip http secure-client-auth ip http secure-trustpoint CA_XXX If the router is not configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215701

The Cisco router must be configured to protect against known types of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks by employing organization-defined security safeguards.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001220
Rule ID
SV-215701r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000435-NDM-000315
CCI
CCI-002385
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

DoS is a condition when a resource is not available for legitimate users. When this occurs, the organization either cannot accomplish its mission or must operate at degraded capacity. This requirement addresses the configuration of network devices to mitigate the impact of DoS attacks that have occurred or are ongoing on device availability. For each network device, known and potential DoS attacks must be identified and solutions for each type implemented. A variety of technologies exist to limit or, in some cases, eliminate the effects of DoS attacks (e.g., limiting processes or restricting the number of sessions the device opens at one time). Employing increased capacity and bandwidth, combined with service redundancy, may reduce the susceptibility to some DoS attacks. The security safeguards cannot be defined at the DoD level because they vary according to the capabilities of the individual network devices and the security controls applied on the adjacent networks (e.g., firewalls performing packet filtering to block DoS attacks).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to protect against known types of DoS attacks on the route processor. Implementing a CoPP policy as shown in the example below is a best practice method. Step 1: Configure ACLs specific traffic types. R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark our control plane adjacencies are critical R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ospf host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ospf host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit pim host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit pim host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit igmp any 224.0.0.0 15.255.255.255 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host x.x.x.x eq bgp host x.x.x.x R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host x.x.x.x eq tacacs any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp x.x.x.x 0.0.0.255 any eq 22 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp host x.x.x.x any eq snmp R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp host x.x.x.x eq ntp any R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark we will want to rate limit ICMP traffic R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any echo R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any echo-reply R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any time-exceeded R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any unreachable R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark management plane traffic that should not be received R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp any any eq ntp R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp any any eq snmp R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp any any eq 22 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp any any eq 23 R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark control plane traffic not configured on router R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit eigrp any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp any any eq rip R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit Step 2: Configure class maps referencing each of the ACLs. R1(config)#class-map match-all CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-any CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-cmap)#match protocol arp R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-all CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-any CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-all CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-cmap)#exit Step 3: Configure a policy map referencing the configured class maps and apply appropriate bandwidth allowance and policing attributes. R1(config)#policy-map CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY R1(config-pmap)#class CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-pmap-c)#police 512000 8000 conform-action transmit exceed-action transmit R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-pmap-c)#police 256000 4000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-pmap-c)#police 128000 2000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-pmap-c)#police 8000 1000 conform-action drop exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-pmap-c)#police 64000 1000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#exit R1(config-pmap-c)#exit R1(config-pmap)#exit Step 4: Apply the policy map to the control plane. R1(config)#control-plane R1(config-cp)#service-policy input CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY R1(config-cp)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: Verify traffic types have been classified based on importance levels. The following is an example configuration: class-map match-all CoPP_CRITICAL match access-group name CoPP_CRITICAL class-map match-any CoPP_IMPORTANT match access-group name CoPP_IMPORTANT match protocol arp class-map match-all CoPP_NORMAL match access-group name CoPP_NORMAL class-map match-any CoPP_UNDESIRABLE match access-group name CoPP_UNDESIRABLE class-map match-all CoPP_DEFAULT match access-group name CoPP_DEFAULT Step 2: Review the ACLs referenced by the class maps to determine if the traffic is being classified appropriately. The following is an example configuration: ip access-list extended CoPP_CRITICAL remark our control plane adjacencies are critical permit ospf host [OSPF neighbor A] any permit ospf host [OSPF neighbor B] any permit pim host [PIM neighbor A] any permit pim host [PIM neighbor B] any permit pim host [RP addr] any permit igmp any 224.0.0.0 15.255.255.255 permit tcp host [BGP neighbor] eq bgp host [local BGP addr] permit tcp host [BGP neighbor] host [local BGP addr] eq bgp deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_IMPORTANT permit tcp host [TACACS server] eq tacacs any permit tcp [management subnet] 0.0.0.255 any eq 22 permit udp host [SNMP manager] any eq snmp permit udp host [NTP server] eq ntp any deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_NORMAL remark we will want to rate limit ICMP traffic permit icmp any any echo permit icmp any any echo-reply permit icmp any any time-exceeded permit icmp any any unreachable deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_UNDESIRABLE remark other management plane traffic that should not be received permit udp any any eq ntp permit udp any any eq snmp permit tcp any any eq 22 permit tcp any any eq 23 remark other control plane traffic not configured on router permit eigrp any any permit udp any any eq rip deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_DEFAULT permit ip any any Note: Explicitly defining undesirable traffic with ACL entries enables the network operator to collect statistics. Excessive ARP packets can potentially monopolize Route Processor resources, starving other important processes. Currently, ARP is the only Layer 2 protocol that can be specifically classified using the match protocol command. Step 3: Review the policy-map to determine if the traffic is being policed appropriately for each classification. The following is an example configuration: policy-map CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY class CoPP_CRITICAL police 512000 8000 conform-action transmit exceed-action transmit class CoPP_IMPORTANT police 256000 4000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop class CoPP_NORMAL police 128000 2000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop class CoPP_UNDESIRABLE police 8000 1000 conform-action drop exceed-action drop class CoPP_DEFAULT police 64000 1000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop Step 4: Verify that the CoPP policy is enabled. The following is an example configuration: control-plane service-policy input CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY Note: Control Plane Protection (CPPr) can be used to filter as well as police control plane traffic destined to the RP. CPPr is very similar to CoPP and has the ability to filter and police traffic using finer granularity by dividing the aggregate control plane into three separate categories: (1) host, (2) transit, and (3) CEF-exception. Hence, a separate policy-map could be configured for each traffic category. If the Cisco router is not configured to protect against known types of DoS attacks by employing organization-defined security safeguards, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215702

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are modified.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001240
Rule ID
SV-215702r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000495-NDM-000318
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when account privileges are modified as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging userinfo R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. hostname R4 ! ! logging userinfo … … … archive log config logging enable Note: The logging userinfo command will log when the administrator increases his or her privilege level while the log config command will log all configuration changes such as changing privilege levels for certain commands. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are modified, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215703

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001250
Rule ID
SV-215703r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000499-NDM-000319
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. archive log config logging enable If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215704

The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001260
Rule ID
SV-215704r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000503-NDM-000320
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur as shown in the example below. R5(config)#login on-failure log R5(config)#login on-success log

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. login on-failure log login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215705

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records for privileged activities.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001270
Rule ID
SV-215705r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000504-NDM-000321
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records for privileged activities as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example configurations below. archive log config logging enable If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records for privileged activities, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215707

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001290
Rule ID
SV-215707r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000506-NDM-000323
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur as shown in the example below. R5(config)#login on-success log

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215708

The Cisco router must be configured to off-load log records onto a different system than the system being audited.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001310
Rule ID
SV-215708r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000515-NDM-000325
CCI
CCI-001851
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to send log records to a syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the Cisco router is not configured to off-load log records onto a different system than the system being audited, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215709

The Cisco router must be configured to use an authentication server for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001370
Rule ID
SV-215709r521266_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000336
CCI
CCI-000370
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Centralized management of user accounts and authentication increases the administrative access to the router. This control is particularly important protection against the insider threat. With robust centralized management, audit records for administrator account access to the organization's network devices can be more readily analyzed for trends and anomalies. The alternative method of defining administrator accounts on each device exposes the device configuration to remote access authentication attacks and system administrators with multiple authenticators for each network device.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the Cisco router is not configured to use an authentication server for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215710

The Cisco router must be configured to back up the configuration when changes occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001410
Rule ID
SV-215710r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000340
CCI
CCI-000537
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

System-level information includes default and customized settings and security attributes, including ACLs that relate to the network device configuration, as well as software required for the execution and operation of the device. Information system backup is a critical step in ensuring system integrity and availability. If the system fails and there is no backup of the system-level information, a denial of service condition is possible for all who utilize this critical network component. This control requires the network device to support the organizational central backup process for system-level information associated with the network device. This function may be provided by the network device itself; however, the preferred best practice is a centralized backup rather than each network device performing discrete backups.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to send the configuration to an TFTP or FTP server when a configuration change occurs as shown in the example below. R4(config)#event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG R4(config-applet)#event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" R4(config-applet)#action 1 cli command "enable" R4(config-applet)#action 2 info type routername R4(config-applet)#action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" R4(config-applet)#action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" R4(config-applet)#action 5 cli command "$_info_routername-config" R4(config-applet)#action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" R4(config-applet)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The example configuration below will send the configuration to a TFTP server when a configuration change occurs. event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" action 1 info type routername action 2 cli command "enable" action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" action 5 cli command "$_info_routername-config" action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" If the Cisco router is not configured to conduct backups of the configuration when changes occur, this is a finding.

Removed

V-215711

The Cisco router must be configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001440
Rule ID
SV-215711r521266_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000344
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

For user certificates, each organization obtains certificates from an approved, shared service provider, as required by OMB policy. For federal agencies operating a legacy public key infrastructure cross-certified with the Federal Bridge Certification Authority at medium assurance or higher, this Certification Authority will suffice.

Fix Text

Configure the router to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider as shown in the example below. R2(config)# crypto pki trustpoint CA_X R2(ca-trustpoint)#enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if a CA trust point has been configured. The CA trust point will contain the URL of the CA in which the router has enrolled with. Verify this is a DoD or DoD-approved CA. This will ensure the router has enrolled and received a certificate from a trusted CA. The CA trust point configuration would look similar to the example below. crypto pki trustpoint CA_X enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com Note: A remote end-point's certificate will always be validated by the router by verifying the signature of the CA on the certificate using the CA's public key, which is contained in the router's certificate it received at enrollment. Note: This requirement is not applicable if the router does not have any public key certificates. If the Cisco router is not configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider, this is a finding.

Removed

V-220136

The Cisco router must be configured to send log data to a syslog server for the purpose of forwarding alerts to the administrators and the ISSO.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001450
Rule ID
SV-220136r521266_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000350
CCI
CCI-002605
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The aggregation of log data kept on a syslog server can be used to detect attacks and trigger an alert to the appropriate security personnel. The stored log data can used to detect weaknesses in security that enable the network IA team to find and address these weaknesses before breaches can occur. Reviewing these logs, whether before or after a security breach, are important in showing whether someone is an internal employee or an outside threat.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

Verify that the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the router is not configured to send log data to the syslog server, this is a finding.

Removed

V-220137

The Cisco router must be running an IOS release that is currently supported by Cisco Systems.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001470
Rule ID
SV-220137r521266_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000351
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Network devices running an unsupported operating system lack current security fixes required to mitigate the risks associated with recent vulnerabilities. Running a supported release also enables operations to maintain a stable and reliable network provided by improved quality of service and security features.

Fix Text

Upgrade the router to a supported release.

Check Content

Verify that the router is in compliance with this requirement by having the router administrator enter the following command: show version Verify that the release is still supported by Cisco. All releases supported by Cisco can be found on the following URL: www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/ios-nx-os-software If the router is not running a supported release, this is a finding.