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Cisco IOS Router NDM Security Technical Implementation Guide

Version 1 Release 12
2019-07-192020-01-24
U_Cisco_IOS_Router_NDM_STIG_V1R12_Manual-xccdf.xml
This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: disa.stig_spt@mail.mil.

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  • Updated 2
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Vulnerabilities (92)

Removed

V-96037

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records for DoD-defined auditable events.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000230
Rule ID
SV-105175r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000089-NDM-000221
CCI
CCI-000169
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without the capability to generate audit records, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., process, module). Certain specific device functionalities may be audited as well. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records. DoD has defined the list of events for which the device will provide an audit record generation capability as the following: (i) Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g., classification levels); (ii) Access actions, such as successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities or other system level access, starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations, successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects, all program initiations, and all direct access to the information system; and (iii) All account creation, modification, disabling, and termination actions.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records for DoD-defined auditable events as shown in the configuration example below. R1(config)#logging buffered informational R1(config)#logging console warnings

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below depicts setting a higher severity level (warnings and above) of events to be logged on the console while informational and above will be logged to the buffer. logging buffered 4096 informational logging console warnings If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records for DoD-defined auditable events, this is a finding.

Removed

V-96101

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically terminate a network administrator session after organization-defined conditions or trigger events requiring session disconnect.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000840
Rule ID
SV-105239r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000295-NDM-000279
CCI
CCI-002361
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Automatic session termination addresses the termination of administrator-initiated logical sessions in contrast to the termination of network connections that are associated with communications sessions (i.e., network disconnect). A logical session (for local, network, and remote access) is initiated whenever an administrator (or process acting on behalf of a user) accesses a network device. Such administrator sessions can be terminated (and thus terminate network administrator access) without terminating network sessions. Session termination terminates all processes associated with an administrator's logical session except those processes that are specifically created by the administrator (i.e., session owner) to continue after the session is terminated. Conditions or trigger events requiring automatic session termination can include, for example, organization-defined periods of user inactivity, targeted responses to certain types of incidents, and time-of-day restrictions on information system use. These conditions will vary across environments and network device types.

Fix Text

Set the idle timeout value network connections associated with a device management to 10 minutes or less as shown in the example below. R1(config)#line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 10 0 R1(config-line)#exit R1(config)#line con 0 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 10 0 R1(config-line)#exit R2(config)#ip http timeout-policy idle 600 life nnnn requests nn

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that all network connections associated with a device management have an idle timeout value set to 10 minutes or less as shown in the following example: ip http secure-server ip http timeout-policy idle 600 life nnnn requests nn … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 If the Cisco router is not configured to automatically terminate a network administrator session after organization-defined conditions or trigger events requiring session disconnect, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to supportback organizationalup requirements to conduct backups of the configuration when changes occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001410
Rule ID
SV-105315r1_rule105315r2_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000340
CCI
CCI-000537
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

System-level information includes default and customized settings and security attributes, including ACLs that relate to the network device configuration, as well as software required for the execution and operation of the device. Information system backup is a critical step in ensuring system integrity and availability. If the system fails and there is no backup of the system-level information, a denial of service condition is possible for all who utilize this critical network component. This control requires the network device to support the organizational central backup process for system-level information associated with the network device. This function may be provided by the network device itself; however, the preferred best practice is a centralized backup rather than each network device performing discrete backups.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to send the configuration to an TFTP or FTP server when a configuration change occurs as shown in the example below. R4(config)#event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG R4(config-applet)#event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" R4(config-applet)#action 1 cli command "enable" R4(config-applet)#action 2 info type routername R4(config-applet)#action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" R4(config-applet)#action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" R4(config-applet)#action 5 cli command "$_info_routername-config" R4(config-applet)#action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" R4(config-applet)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The example configuration below will send the configuration to a TFTP server when a configuration change occurs. event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" action 1 info type routername action 2 cli command "enable" action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" action 5 cli command "$_info_routername-config" action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" If the Cisco router is not configured to conduct backups of the configuration when changes occur, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001440
Rule ID
SV-105319r1_rule105319r2_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000344
CCI
CCI-001159
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

For user certificates, each organization obtains certificates from an approved, shared service provider, as required by OMB policy. For federal agencies operating a legacy public key infrastructure cross-certified with the Federal Bridge Certification Authority at medium assurance or higher, this Certification Authority will suffice.

Fix Text

Configure the router to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider as showshown in the example below. R2(config)# crypto pki trustpoint CA_X R2(ca-trustpoint)#enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if a CA trust point has been configured. The CA trust point will contain the URL of the CA in which the router has enrolled with. Verify this is a DoD or DoD-approved CA. This will ensure the router has enrolled and received a certificate from a trusted CA. The CA trust point configuration would look similar to the example below. crypto pki trustpoint CA_X enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com Note: A remote end-point's certificate will always be validated by the router by verifying the signature of the CA on the certificate using the CA's public key, which is contained in the router's certificate it received at enrollment. Note: This requirement is not applicable if the router does not have any public key certificates. If the Cisco router is not configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000010
Rule ID
SV-105145r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000001-NDM-000200
CCI
CCI-000054
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Device management includes the ability to control the number of administrators and management sessions that manage a device. Limiting the number of allowed administrators and sessions per administrator based on account type, role, or access type is helpful in limiting risks related to DoS attacks. This requirement addresses concurrent sessions for administrative accounts and does not address concurrent sessions by a single administrator via multiple administrative accounts. The maximum number of concurrent sessions should be defined based upon mission needs and the operational environment for each system. At a minimum, limits must be set for SSH, HTTPS, account of last resort, and root account sessions.

Fix Text

Configure the router to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number as shown in the example below. ip http max-connections 2 line vty 0 4 session-limit 2

Check Content

Note: This requirement is not applicable to file transfer actions such as FTP, SCP and SFTP. Review the router configuration to determine if concurrent management sessions are limited as show in the example below: ip http secure-server ip http max-connections 2 … … … line vty 0 4 session-limit 2 transport input ssh If the router is not configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions, this is a finding.

The network element must provide automated support for account management functions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000060
Rule ID
SV-105147r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000023-NDM-000205
CCI
CCI-000015
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If account management functions are not automatically enforced, an attacker could gain privileged access to a vital element of the network security architecture. Account management functions include: assignment of group or role membership; identifying account type; specifying user access authorizations (i.e., privileges); account removal, update, or termination; and administrative alerts.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must automatically remove or disable temporary user accounts after 72 hours.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000070
Rule ID
SV-105149r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000024-NDM-000206
CCI
CCI-000016
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Temporary accounts are established as part of normal account activation procedures when there is a need for short-term accounts without the demand for immediacy in account activation. If temporary accounts remain active when no longer needed, they may be used to gain unauthorized access. The risk is greater for the network device since these accounts have elevated privileges. To mitigate this risk, automated termination of all temporary accounts must be set upon account creation.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must automatically disable accounts after a 35-day period of account inactivity.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000080
Rule ID
SV-105151r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000025-NDM-000207
CCI
CCI-000017
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Inactive accounts could be reactivated or compromised by unauthorized users, allowing exploitation of vulnerabilities and undetected access to the network device. This control does not apply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account creation.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000090
Rule ID
SV-105153r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000026-NDM-000208
CCI
CCI-000018
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Upon gaining access to a network device, an attacker will often first attempt to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is to create a new account. Notification of account creation helps to mitigate this risk. Auditing account creation provides the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. Without this audit trail, personnel without the proper authorization may gain access to critical network nodes.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account creation using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account creation. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account creation is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account modification.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000100
Rule ID
SV-105155r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000027-NDM-000209
CCI
CCI-001403
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Account management by a designated authority ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel with the appropriate and necessary privileges. Auditing account modification along with an automatic notification to appropriate individuals will provide the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. If modifications to management accounts are not audited, reconciliation of account management procedures cannot be tracked.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account modification using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account modification. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account modification is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account disabling actions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000110
Rule ID
SV-105157r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000028-NDM-000210
CCI
CCI-001404
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account disabling actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are disabled, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account disabling using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account disabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account disabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account removal actions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000120
Rule ID
SV-105159r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000029-NDM-000211
CCI
CCI-001405
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account removal actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are terminated, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account removal using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account removal. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account removal is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000140
Rule ID
SV-105161r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000038-NDM-000213
CCI
CCI-001368
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

A mechanism to detect and prevent unauthorized communication flow must be configured or provided as part of the system design. If management information flow is not enforced based on approved authorizations, the network device may become compromised. Information flow control regulates where management information is allowed to travel within a network device. The flow of all management information must be monitored and controlled so it does not introduce any unacceptable risk to the network device or data. Application-specific examples of enforcement occur in systems that employ rule sets or establish configuration settings that restrict information system services or message-filtering capability based on message content (e.g., implementing key word searches or using document characteristics). Applications providing information flow control must be able to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the system in accordance with applicable policy.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to restrict management access to specific IP addresses via SSH as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ip access-list standard MANAGEMENT_NET R2(config-std-nacl)#permit x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 R2(config-std-nacl)#exit R2(config)#line vty 0 4 R2(config-line)#transport input ssh R2(config-line)#access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in R2(config-line)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: Verify that the line vty has an ACL inbound applied as shown in the example below. line vty 0 4 access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in transport input ssh Step 2: Verify that the ACL permits only hosts from the management network to access the router. ip access-list standard MANAGEMENT_NET permit x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, after which time it must lock out the user account from accessing the device for 15 minutes.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000150
Rule ID
SV-105163r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000065-NDM-000214
CCI
CCI-000044
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below. R2(config)#login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it enforces the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below. login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120 Note: The configuration example above will block any login attempt for 15 minutes after three consecutive invalid logon attempts within a two-minute period. If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000160
Rule ID
SV-105165r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000068-NDM-000215
CCI
CCI-000048
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Display of the DoD-approved use notification before granting access to the network device ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. System use notifications are required only for access via logon interfaces with human users.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access as shown in the following example: R1(config)#banner login # Enter TEXT message. End with the character '#'. You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. # R1(config)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. banner login ^C You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. ^C If the Cisco router is not configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device, this is a finding.

Upon successful logon, the Cisco router must notify the administrator of the date and time of the last logon.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000180
Rule ID
SV-105167r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000075-NDM-000217
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their network device management account. Providing administrators with information regarding the date and time of their last successful login allows them to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. This incorporates all methods of login, including, but not limited to, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, and physical connectivity.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

Upon successful logon, the Cisco router must notify the administrator of the number of unsuccessful logon attempts since the last successful logon.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000190
Rule ID
SV-105169r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000076-NDM-000218
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their network device management account. Providing administrators with information regarding the number of unsuccessful attempts made to login to their account allows them to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. Without this information, the administrator may not be aware that unauthorized activity has occurred. This incorporates all methods of login, including, but not limited to, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, and physical connectivity.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must notify the administrator of changes to access and/or privilege parameters of the administrators account that occurred since the last logon.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000200
Rule ID
SV-105171r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000079-NDM-000219
CCI
CCI-001395
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Providing administrators with information regarding security-related changes to their account allows them to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. Changes to the account could be an indication of the account being compromised. Hence, without notification to the administrator, the compromise could go undetected if other controls were not in place to mitigate this risk.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to protect against an individual falsely denying having performed organization-defined actions to be covered by non-repudiation.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000210
Rule ID
SV-105173r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000080-NDM-000220
CCI
CCI-000166
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

This requirement supports non-repudiation of actions taken by an administrator and is required in order to maintain the integrity of the configuration management process. All configuration changes to the network device are logged, and administrators authenticate with two-factor authentication before gaining administrative access. Together, these processes will ensure the administrators can be held accountable for the configuration changes they implement. To meet this requirement, the network device must log administrator access and activity.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log administrator activity as shown in the example below. R1(config)#logging userinfo R1(config)#archive R1(config-archive)#log config R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. hostname R1 ! logging userinfo ! … … … archive log config logging enable ! Note: The logging userinfo global configuration command will generate a log when a user increases his or her privilege level. If logging of administrator activity is not configured, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to log on with access privileges occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000250
Rule ID
SV-105177r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000091-NDM-000223
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to log all logon attempts as shown in the example below. R1(config)#login on-failure log R1(config)#login on-success log R1(config)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all logon attempts. login on-failure log login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to logon, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must produce audit records containing information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000280
Rule ID
SV-105179r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000096-NDM-000226
CCI
CCI-000131
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

It is essential for security personnel to know what is being done, what was attempted, where it was done, when it was done, and by whom it was done in order to compile an accurate risk assessment. Logging the date and time of each detected event provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured network device. In order to establish and correlate the series of events leading up to an outage or attack, it is imperative the date and time are recorded in all log records.

Fix Text

Configure the router to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the example below. R1(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

Check Content

Verify that the router is configured to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the configuration example below. service timestamps log datetime localtime If time stamps is not configured, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must produce audit records containing information to establish where the events occurred.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000290
Rule ID
SV-105181r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000097-NDM-000227
CCI
CCI-000132
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know where events occurred, such as device hardware components, device software modules, session identifiers, filenames, host names, and functionality. Associating information about where the event occurred within the network device provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured device.

Fix Text

Configure the log-input parameter after any deny statements to provide the location as to where packets have been dropped via an ACL. R1(config)#ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny icmp any any log-input

Check Content

Review the deny statements in all ACLs to determine if the log-input parameter has been configured as shown in the example below. ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND deny icmp any any log-input If the router is not configured with the log-input parameter after any deny statements to note where packets have been dropped via an ACL, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records containing the full-text recording of privileged commands.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000330
Rule ID
SV-105183r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000101-NDM-000231
CCI
CCI-000135
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. Organizations consider limiting the additional audit information to only that information explicitly needed for specific audit requirements. The additional information required is dependent on the type of information (i.e., sensitivity of the data and the environment within which it resides). At a minimum, the organization must audit full-text recording of privileged commands. The organization must maintain audit trails in sufficient detail to reconstruct events to determine the cause and impact of compromise.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to log all configuration changes as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all configuration changes. archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records of configuration changes, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must alert the ISSO and SA (at a minimum) in the event of an audit processing failure.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000340
Rule ID
SV-105185r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000108-NDM-000232
CCI
CCI-000139
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without this notification, the security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected. Audit processing failures include software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server that can send alerts to the appropriate personnel. Verify that the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the router is not configured to send log messages to a syslog server, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized modification.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000380
Rule ID
SV-105187r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000119-NDM-000236
CCI
CCI-000163
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit network device activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized modification. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions and limiting log data locations. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the modification of audit data.

Fix Text

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized deletion.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000390
Rule ID
SV-105189r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000120-NDM-000237
CCI
CCI-000164
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include: ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections, restricting access, and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit data.

Fix Text

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must use cryptographic mechanisms to protect the integrity of audit information at rest.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000440
Rule ID
SV-105191r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000126-NDM-000242
CCI
CCI-001350
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Audit records may be tampered with. If the integrity of audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. Protection of audit records and audit data, including audit configuration settings, is of critical importance. Cryptographic mechanisms are the industry-established standard used to protect the integrity of audit data. An example of a cryptographic mechanism is the computation and application of a cryptographic-signed hash using asymmetric cryptography. This requirement is not intended to cause a new cryptographic hash to be generated every time a record is added to a log file.

Fix Text

Disable persistent logging as shown in the configuration example. no logging persistent url flash0:/Logfile

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if persistent logging is not enabled. The following is an example of persistent logging. logging persistent url flash0:/Logfile filesize 6220000 If persistent logging is configured, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to limit privileges to change the software resident within software libraries.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000460
Rule ID
SV-105193r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000133-NDM-000244
CCI
CCI-001499
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Changes to any software components of the network device can have significant effects on the overall security of the network. Therefore, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed administrative access to the network device for implementing any changes or upgrades. If the network device were to enable non-authorized users to make changes to software libraries, those changes could be implemented without undergoing testing, validation, and approval.

Fix Text

Configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

Check Content

Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to prohibit the use of all unnecessary and nonsecure functions and services.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000470
Rule ID
SV-105195r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000142-NDM-000245
CCI
CCI-000382
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Network devices are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the network device must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports, protocols, and/or services to only those required, authorized, and approved. Some network devices have capabilities enabled by default; if these capabilities are not necessary, they must be disabled. If a particular capability is used, then it must be documented and approved.

Fix Text

Disable the following services if enabled as shown in the example below. R2(config)#no boot network R2(config)#no ip boot server R2(config)#no ip bootp server R2(config)#no ip dns server R2(config)#no ip identd R2(config)#no ip finger R2(config)#no ip http server R2(config)#no ip rcmd rcp-enable R2(config)#no ip rcmd rsh-enable R2(config)#no service config R2(config)#no service finger R2(config)#no service tcp-small-servers R2(config)#no service udp-small-servers R2(config)#no service pad R2(config)#end

Check Content

Verify that the router does not have any unnecessary or non-secure ports, protocols and services enabled. For example, the following commands should not be in the configuration: boot network ip boot server ip bootp server ip dns server ip identd ip finger ip http server ip rcmd rcp-enable ip rcmd rsh-enable service config service finger service tcp-small-servers service udp-small-servers If any unnecessary or non-secure ports, protocols, or services are enabled, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must uniquely identify and authenticate organizational administrators (or processes acting on behalf of organizational administrators).

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000480
Rule ID
SV-105197r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000148-NDM-000246
CCI
CCI-000764
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, organizational administrators must be uniquely identified and authenticated for all network management accesses to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. This control does not apply to the root account (when applicable) or the account of last resort which are considered to be authorized shared accounts.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000490
Rule ID
SV-105199r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000148-NDM-000346
CCI
CCI-002111
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Authentication for administrative (privileged level) access to the device is required at all times. An account can be created on the device's local database for use when the authentication server is down or connectivity between the device and the authentication server is not operable. This account is referred to as the account of last resort since it is intended to be used as a last resort and when immediate administrative access is absolutely necessary. The account of last resort logon credentials must be stored in a sealed envelope and kept in a safe. The safe must be periodically audited to verify the envelope remains sealed. The signature of the auditor and the date of the audit should be added to the envelope as a record. Administrators should secure the credentials and disable the root account (if possible) when not needed for system administration functions.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure a local account as shown in the example below. R2(config)#username xxxxxxxxx privilege nn secret xxxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the local account if the authentication server is not reachable as shown in the following example: R2(config)#aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local

Check Content

Step 1: Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that a local account for last resort has been configured. username xxxxxxxxx privilege nn secret xxxxxxx Step 2: Verify that local is defined after radius or tacas+ in the authentication order as shown in the example below. aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local If the Cisco router is not configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must use multifactor authentication for network access to privileged accounts.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000500
Rule ID
SV-105201r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000149-NDM-000247
CCI
CCI-000765
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Multifactor authentication requires using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN); (ii) something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) something a user is (e.g., biometric). A privileged account is defined as an information system account with authorizations of a privileged user. Network access is defined as access to an information system by a user (or a process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a network (e.g., LAN, WAN, or the Internet). This requirement does not apply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must use multifactor authentication for local access to privileged accounts.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000510
Rule ID
SV-105203r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000151-NDM-000248
CCI
CCI-000767
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Multifactor authentication is defined as: using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) Something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN); (ii) Something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) Something a user is (e.g., biometric). To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, privileged users must utilize multifactor authentication to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Local access is defined as access to an organizational information system by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a direct connection without the use of a network. Applications integrating with the DoD Active Directory and utilizing the DoD CAC are examples of compliant multifactor authentication solutions. This control does not apply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to implement replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000530
Rule ID
SV-105205r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000156-NDM-000250
CCI
CCI-001941
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

A replay attack may enable an unauthorized user to gain access to the application. Authentication sessions between the authenticator and the application validating the user credentials must not be vulnerable to a replay attack. An authentication process resists replay attacks if it is impractical to achieve a successful authentication by recording and replaying a previous authentication message. Techniques used to address this include protocols using nonces (e.g., numbers generated for a specific one-time use) or challenges (e.g., TLS, WS_Security). Additional techniques include time-synchronous or challenge-response one-time authenticators.

Fix Text

Configure SSH to use FIPS-140-2 compliant HMACs as shown in the example below. R1(config)#ip ssh version 2 R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes192-cbc aes192-ctr Note: An SSH configuration enables a server and client to authorize the negotiation of only those algorithms that are configured from the allowed list. If a user tries to negotiate using an algorithm that is not part of the allowed list, the request is rejected and the session is not established.

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that SSH is configured to use FIPS-140-2 compliant HMACs as shown in the example below. ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes192-cbc aes192-ctr Note: An SSH configuration enables a server and client to authorize the negotiation of only those algorithms that are configured from the allowed list. If a remote party tries to negotiate using an algorithm that is not part of the allowed list, the request is rejected and the session is not established. If the router is not configured to implement replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must disable identifiers (individuals, groups, roles, and devices) after 35 days of inactivity.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000540
Rule ID
SV-105207r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000163-NDM-000251
CCI
CCI-000795
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Inactive identifiers pose a risk to network devices. Attackers that are able to exploit an inactive identifier can potentially obtain and maintain undetected access to the device. Owners of inactive accounts may not notice if unauthorized access to their account has been obtained. Network devices need to track periods of inactivity and disable application identifiers after 35 days of inactivity. This control does not apply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000550
Rule ID
SV-105209r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000164-NDM-000252
CCI
CCI-000205
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce a minimum 15-character password length as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#min-length 15 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY min-length 15 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000570
Rule ID
SV-105211r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000166-NDM-000254
CCI
CCI-000192
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex passwords helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#upper-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY upper-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000580
Rule ID
SV-105213r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000167-NDM-000255
CCI
CCI-000193
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#lower-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY lower-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000590
Rule ID
SV-105215r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000168-NDM-000256
CCI
CCI-000194
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#numeric-count 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY numeric-count 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000600
Rule ID
SV-105217r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000169-NDM-000257
CCI
CCI-001619
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#special-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY special-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000610
Rule ID
SV-105219r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000170-NDM-000329
CCI
CCI-000195
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of passwords, this increases the chances of password compromise by increasing the window of opportunity for attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. The number of changed characters refers to the number of changes required with respect to the total number of positions in the current password. In other words, characters may be the same within the two passwords; however, the positions of the like characters must be different. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#char-changes 8 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY char-changes 8 If the Cisco router is not configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must only store cryptographic representations of passwords.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000620
Rule ID
SV-105221r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000171-NDM-000258
CCI
CCI-000196
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Network devices must enforce cryptographic representations of passwords when storing passwords in databases, configuration files, and log files. Passwords must be protected at all times; using a strong one-way hashing encryption algorithm with a salt is the standard method for providing a means to validate a password without having to store the actual password. Performance and time required to access are factors that must be considered, and the one way hash is the most feasible means of securing the password and providing an acceptable measure of password security. If passwords are stored in clear text, they can be plainly read and easily compromised. In many instances, verifying the user knows a password is performed using a password verifier. In its simplest form, a password verifier is a computational function that is capable of creating a hash of a password and determining if the value provided by the user matches the stored hash.

Fix Text

Configure the router to encrypt all passwords. R4(config)#service password-encryption R4(config)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if passwords are encrypted as shown in the example below. service password-encryption If the router is not configured to encrypt passwords, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must enforce 24 hours as the minimum password lifetime.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000640
Rule ID
SV-105223r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000173-NDM-000260
CCI
CCI-000198
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Enforcing a minimum password lifetime helps prevent repeated password changes to defeat the password reuse or history enforcement requirement. Restricting this setting limits the user's ability to change their password. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals; however, if the network device allows the user to immediately and continually change their password, then the password could be repeatedly changed in a short period of time to defeat the organization's policy regarding password reuse. This control does not include root account or the account of last resort. For network devices, implementation of this requirement could cause emergency maintenance issues if applied to these local accounts. For example, after maintenance by maintenance personnel who are not normally authorized access to these passwords, the passwords will need to be changed. This is the same as the requirement to change the password when a system administrator with knowledge of the passwords for the root or account of last resort leaves the organization.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must enforce a 60-day maximum password lifetime restriction.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000650
Rule ID
SV-105225r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000174-NDM-000261
CCI
CCI-000199
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked. Therefore, passwords need to be changed at specific intervals. One method of minimizing this risk is to use complex passwords and periodically change them. If the network device does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the passwords could be compromised. This requirement does not include root account or the account of last resort which are meant for access to the network device in case of failure.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to terminate all network connections associated with device management after 10 minutes of inactivity.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000720
Rule ID
SV-105227r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000190-NDM-000267
CCI
CCI-001133
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended. In addition, quickly terminating an idle session will also free up resources committed by the managed network element. Terminating network connections associated with communications sessions includes, for example, de-allocating associated TCP/IP address/port pairs at the operating system level, or de-allocating networking assignments at the application level if multiple application sessions are using a single, operating system-level network connection. This does not mean that the device terminates all sessions or network access; it only ends the inactive session and releases the resources associated with that session.

Fix Text

Set the idle timeout value to "10" minutes or less on all configured login classes as shown in the example below. R1(config)#line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 10 0 R1(config-line)#exit R1(config)#line con 0 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 10 0 R1(config-line)#exit R2(config)#ip http timeout-policy idle 600 life nnnn requests nn

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that all network connections associated with a device management have an idle timeout value set to 10 minutes or less as shown in the following example: ip http secure-server ip http timeout-policy idle 600 life nnnn requests nn … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 If the Cisco router is not configured to terminate all network connections associated with a device management after "10" minutes of inactivity, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must activate a system alert message, send an alarm, and/or automatically shut down when a component failure is detected.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000790
Rule ID
SV-105229r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000268-NDM-000274
CCI
CCI-001328
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Predictable failure prevention requires organizational planning to address device failure issues. If components key to maintaining the device's security fail to function, the device could continue operating in an insecure state. If appropriate actions are not taken when a network device failure occurs, a denial of service condition may occur which could result in mission failure since the network would be operating without a critical security monitoring and prevention function. Upon detecting a failure of network device security components, the network device must activate a system alert message, send an alarm, or shut down.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send SNMP traps to the SNMP manager as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server enable traps R4(config)#snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth xxxxx The above command will enable all possible traps and is not necessary—selective set of traps can be enabled as require.

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to send SNMP traps and notifications to the SNMP manager for the purpose of sending alarms and notifying appropriate personnel as required by specific events. The SNMP configuration should contain commands similar to the example below. snmp-server enable traps snmp authentication linkdown linkup coldstart warmstart snmp-server enable traps vrrp snmp-server enable traps eigrp snmp-server enable traps cpu threshold … … … snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap add snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap delete snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap attach snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap detach snmp-server enable traps ipsec tunnel start snmp-server enable traps ipsec tunnel stop snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth xxxxx Note: The above is a subset of all the possible traps that can be enabled. Selective traps can be enabled as required. If the router is not configured to send traps to the SNMP manager, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must generate alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and ISSO when accounts are created.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000800
Rule ID
SV-105231r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000291-NDM-000275
CCI
CCI-001683
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply create a new account. Notification of account creation is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of accounts and notifies administrators and Information System Security Officers (ISSO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must generate alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and ISSO when accounts are modified.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000810
Rule ID
SV-105233r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000292-NDM-000276
CCI
CCI-001684
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply modify an existing account. Notification of account modification is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the modification of device administrator accounts and notifies administrators and ISSO. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously modified and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. The network device must generate the alert. Notification may be done by a management server. This control applies to locally defined accounts, including the root account and the account of last resort.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must generate alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and ISSO when accounts are disabled.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000820
Rule ID
SV-105235r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000293-NDM-000277
CCI
CCI-001685
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

When application accounts are disabled, administrator accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual device administrators or for identifying the device processes themselves. In order to detect and respond to events that affect administrator accessibility and device processing, devices must audit account disabling actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that device accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must generate alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and ISSO when accounts are removed.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000830
Rule ID
SV-105237r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000294-NDM-000278
CCI
CCI-001686
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

When application accounts are removed, administrator accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual device administrators or for identifying the device processes themselves. In order to detect and respond to events that affect administrator accessibility and device processing, devices must audit account removal actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that device accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account enabling actions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000880
Rule ID
SV-105241r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000319-NDM-000283
CCI
CCI-002130
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies administrators and Information System Security Officers (ISSO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Fix Text

Configure the router to log account enabling using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account enabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account enabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must notify SAs and ISSMs when accounts are created or enabled when previously disabled.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000890
Rule ID
SV-105243r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000320-NDM-000284
CCI
CCI-002132
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies SAs and ISSMs. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously enabled and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. In order to detect and respond to events that affect network administrator accessibility and device processing, network devices must audit account enabling actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to be compliant with at least one IETF Internet standard authentication protocol.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000900
Rule ID
SV-105245r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000325-NDM-000285
CCI
CCI-002353
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Protecting access authorization information (i.e., access control decisions) ensures that authorization information cannot be altered, spoofed, or otherwise compromised during transmission. In distributed information systems, authorization processes and access control decisions may occur in separate parts of the systems. In such instances, authorization information is transmitted securely so timely access control decisions can be enforced at the appropriate locations. To support the access control decisions, it may be necessary to transmit, as part of the access authorization information, supporting security attributes. This is because, in distributed information systems, there are various access control decisions that need to be made, and different entities (e.g., services) make these decisions in a serial fashion, each requiring some security attributes to make the decisions. The network device must be compliant with at least one IETF standard authentication protocol such as Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS), Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), and Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus (TACACS+). Protocols that are clearly defined in IETF RFC Internet standards (a.k.a. full standards), and are capable of securely conveying authorization information, are suitable for use.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host x.x.x.x key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the Cisco router is not configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to audit the execution of privileged functions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000940
Rule ID
SV-105247r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000343-NDM-000289
CCI
CCI-002234
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised information system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider threats and the advanced persistent threat.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to log all commands entered from the command line interface as well as log all configuration changes as shown in the following example: R1(config)#logging userinfo R1(config)#archive R1(config-archive)#log config R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all commands entered from the command line interface as well as log all configuration changes. hostname R1 ! logging userinfo ! … … … archive log config logging enable ! Note: The logging userinfo global configuration command will generate a log when a user increases his or her privilege level. If the Cisco router is not configured to log all commands entered from the command line interface as well as log all configuration changes, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must automatically lock the account until the locked account is released by an administrator when three unsuccessful logon attempts in 15 minutes are exceeded.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000950
Rule ID
SV-105249r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000345-NDM-000290
CCI
CCI-002238
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

By limiting the number of failed login attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must notify the administrator, upon successful logon (access), of the location of last logon (terminal or IP address) in addition to the date and time of the last logon (access).

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000960
Rule ID
SV-105251r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000346-NDM-000291
CCI
CCI-002250
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their account. Providing them with information deemed important by the organization may aid in the discovery of unauthorized access or thwart a potential attacker. Organizations should consider the risks to the specific information system being accessed and the threats presented by the device to the environment when configuring this option. An excessive or unnecessary amount of information presented to the administrator at logon is not recommended.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000980
Rule ID
SV-105253r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000357-NDM-000293
CCI
CCI-001849
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In order to ensure network devices have a sufficient storage capacity in which to write the audit logs, they need to be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. The task of allocating audit record storage capacity is usually performed during initial device setup if it is modifiable. The value for the organization-defined audit record storage requirement will depend on the amount of storage available on the network device, the anticipated volume of logs, the frequency of transfer from the network device to centralized log servers, and other factors.

Fix Text

Configure the buffer size for logging as shown in the example below. R2(config)#logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational

Check Content

Verify that the Cisco router is configured with a logging buffer size. The configuration should look like the example below: logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational If a logging buffer size is not configured, this is a finding. If the Cisco router is not configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must generate an immediate alert when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75% of repository maximum audit record storage capacity.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000990
Rule ID
SV-105255r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000359-NDM-000294
CCI
CCI-001855
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If security personnel are not notified immediately upon storage volume utilization reaching 75%, they are unable to plan for storage capacity expansion. This could lead to the loss of audit information. Note that while the network device must generate the alert, notification may be done by a management server.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server that can send alerts to the appropriate personnel. Verify that the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the router is not configured to send log messages to a syslog server, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001000
Rule ID
SV-105257r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000360-NDM-000295
CCI
CCI-001858
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to send critical to emergency log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. 4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap critical Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e., error, warning, notice, informational).

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. logging trap critical logging x.x.x.x Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e., error, warning, notice, informational). Informational is the default severity level; hence, if the severity level is configured to informational, the logging trap command will not be shown in the configuration. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to synchronize its clock with the primary and secondary time sources using redundant authoritative time sources.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001030
Rule ID
SV-105259r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000373-NDM-000298
CCI
CCI-001893
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The loss of connectivity to a particular authoritative time source will result in the loss of time synchronization (free-run mode) and increasingly inaccurate time stamps on audit events and other functions. Multiple time sources provide redundancy by including a secondary source. Time synchronization is usually a hierarchy; clients synchronize time to a local source while that source synchronizes its time to a more accurate source. The network device must utilize an authoritative time server and/or be configured to use redundant authoritative time sources. This requirement is related to the comparison done in CCI-001891. DoD-approved solutions consist of a combination of a primary and secondary time source using a combination or multiple instances of the following: a time server designated for the appropriate DoD network (NIPRNet/SIPRNet); United States Naval Observatory (USNO) time servers; and/or the Global Positioning System (GPS). The secondary time source must be located in a different geographic region than the primary time source.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x R2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below. ntp server x.x.x.x ntp server y.y.y.y If the Cisco router is not configured to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must record time stamps for audit records that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001040
Rule ID
SV-105261r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000375-NDM-000300
CCI
CCI-001889
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without sufficient granularity of time stamps, it is not possible to adequately determine the chronological order of records. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Granularity of time measurements refers to the degree of synchronization between information system clocks and reference clocks.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to record time stamps that meet a granularity of one second as shown in the example below. R2(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. service timestamps log datetime If the router is not configured to record time stamps that meet a granularity of one second, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to record time stamps for log records that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001050
Rule ID
SV-105263r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000374-NDM-000299
CCI
CCI-001890
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in UTC, a modern continuation of GMT, or local time with an offset from UTC.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to record time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to UTC or GMT as shown in the example below. R2(config)#clock timezone EST -5 R2(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. service timestamps log datetime localtime ! hostname R2 … … … clock timezone EST -5 Note: UTC is the default; hence, the command set time-zone may not be seen in the configuration. This can be verified using the show system uptime command. If the router is not configured to record time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to UTC GMT, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must generate an alert that will then be sent to the ISSO, ISSM, and other designated personnel (deemed appropriate by the local organization) when the unauthorized installation of software is detected.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001060
Rule ID
SV-105265r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000377-NDM-000301
CCI
CCI-001811
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Unauthorized software not only increases risk by increasing the number of potential vulnerabilities, it also can contain malicious code. Sending an alert (in real time) when unauthorized software is detected allows designated personnel to take action on the installation of unauthorized software. Note that while the device must generate the alert, the notification may be done by a management server.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server that can send alerts to the appropriate personnel. Verify that the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the router is not configured to send log messages to a syslog server, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must require users to reauthenticate when privilege escalation or role changes occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001100
Rule ID
SV-105267r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000389-NDM-000306
CCI
CCI-002038
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization. When devices provide the capability to change security roles, it is critical the user re-authenticate. In addition to the re-authentication requirements associated with session locks, organizations may require re-authentication of individuals and/or devices in other situations, including (but not limited to) the following circumstances. (i) When authenticators change; (ii) When roles change; (iii) When security categories of information systems change; (iv) When the execution of privileged functions occurs; (v) After a fixed period of time; or (vi) Periodically. Within the DoD, the minimum circumstances requiring re-authentication are privilege escalation and role changes.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must accept Personal Identity Verification (PIV) credentials.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001110
Rule ID
SV-105269r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000391-NDM-000308
CCI
CCI-001953
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The use of PIV credentials facilitates standardization and reduces the risk of unauthorized access. DoD has mandated the use of the CAC to support identity management and personal authentication for systems covered under HSPD 12, as well as a primary component of layered protection for national security systems.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must electronically verify Personal Identity Verification (PIV) credentials.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001120
Rule ID
SV-105271r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000392-NDM-000309
CCI
CCI-001954
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The use of PIV credentials facilitates standardization and reduces the risk of unauthorized access. DoD has mandated the use of the CAC to support identity management and personal authentication for systems covered under HSPD 12, as well as a primary component of layered protection for national security systems.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC).

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001130
Rule ID
SV-105273r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000310
CCI
CCI-001967
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without authenticating devices, unidentified or unknown devices may be introduced, thereby facilitating malicious activity. Bidirectional authentication provides stronger safeguards to validate the identity of other devices for connections that are of greater risk. A local connection is any connection with a device communicating without the use of a network. A network connection is any connection with a device that communicates through a network (e.g., local area or wide area network, Internet). A remote connection is any connection with a device communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Because of the challenges of applying this requirement on a large scale, organizations are encouraged to only apply the requirement to those limited number (and type) of devices that truly need to support this capability.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to authenticate SNMP messages as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE R4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxxx R4(config)#snmp-server view V3READ iso included R4(config)#snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included R4(config)#snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Authentication used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below. R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: None Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco router is not configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated HMAC, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001140
Rule ID
SV-105275r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000310
CCI
CCI-000068
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without the strong encryption that is provided by the SNMP Version 3 User-based Security Model (USM), an unauthorized user can gain access to network management information that can be used to create a network outage.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE R4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxx priv aes 256 xxxxxx

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Encryption used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below. R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: AES256 Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco router is not configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to authenticate Network Time Protocol (NTP) sources using authentication that is cryptographically based.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001150
Rule ID
SV-105277r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000347
CCI
CCI-001967
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If Network Time Protocol is not authenticated, an attacker can introduce a rogue NTP server. This rogue server can then be used to send incorrect time information to network devices, which will make log timestamps inaccurate and affect scheduled actions. NTP authentication is used to prevent this tampering by authenticating the time source.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ntp authenticate R2(config)#ntp authentication-key 1 md5 xxxxxx R2(config)#ntp trusted-key 1 R2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 R2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y key 1

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below. ntp authentication-key 1 md5 121B0A151012 7 ntp authenticate ntp trusted-key 1 ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 ntp server y.y.y.y key 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must dynamically manage identifiers.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001160
Rule ID
SV-105279r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000396-NDM-000311
CCI
CCI-001976
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Dynamic identifier management prevents disruption of operations by minimizing the need for system restarts. Dynamic establishment of new identifiers will occur while the system is operational. New identifiers or changes to existing identifiers must take effect without the need for a system or session restart. Pre-established trust relationships and mechanisms with appropriate authorities (e.g., Active Directory or authentication server) which validate each identifier are essential to prevent unauthorized access by changed or revoked accounts.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must allow the use of a temporary password for system logons with an immediate change to a permanent password.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001170
Rule ID
SV-105281r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000397-NDM-000312
CCI
CCI-002041
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without providing this capability, an account may be created without a password. Non-repudiation cannot be guaranteed once an account is created if a user is not forced to change the temporary password upon initial login. Temporary passwords are typically used to allow access to applications when new accounts are created or passwords are changed. It is common practice for administrators to create temporary passwords for user accounts that allow the users to log in yet force them to change the password once they have successfully authenticated.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to use FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001200
Rule ID
SV-105283r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000411-NDM-000330
CCI
CCI-002890
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Unapproved mechanisms that are used for authentication to the cryptographic module are not verified and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and DoD data may be compromised. Nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. Currently, HMAC is the only FIPS-approved algorithm for generating and verifying message/data authentication codes in accordance with FIPS 198-1. Products that are FIPS 140-2 validated will have an HMAC that meets specification; however, the option must be configured for use as the only message authentication code used for authentication to cryptographic modules.

Fix Text

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured. Configure SSH and HTTPs to use FIPS-validated HMAC for remote maintenance sessions as shown in the following examples: SSH Example R1(config)#ip ssh version 2 R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha1-96 HTTPS Example R2(config)#ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. SSH Example ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha1-96 HTTPS Example ip http secure-server ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha ip http secure-client-auth ip http secure-trustpoint CA_XXX If the Cisco router is not configured to use FIPS-validated HMAC to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001210
Rule ID
SV-105285r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000412-NDM-000331
CCI
CCI-003123
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

This requires the use of secure protocols instead of their unsecured counterparts, such as SSH instead of telnet, SCP instead of FTP, and HTTPS instead of HTTP. If unsecured protocols (lacking cryptographic mechanisms) are used for sessions, the contents of those sessions will be susceptible to eavesdropping, potentially putting sensitive data (including administrator passwords) at risk of compromise and potentially allowing hijacking of maintenance sessions.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the examples below. SSH Example R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes128-ctr aes192-cbc aes192-ctr HTTPS Example R2(config)#ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. SSH Example ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes128-cbc aes128-ctr aes192-cbc aes192-ctr HTTPS Example ip http secure-server ip http secure-ciphersuite aes-128-cbc-sha ip http secure-client-auth ip http secure-trustpoint CA_XXX If the router is not configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to protect against known types of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks by employing organization-defined security safeguards.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001220
Rule ID
SV-105287r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000435-NDM-000315
CCI
CCI-002385
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

DoS is a condition when a resource is not available for legitimate users. When this occurs, the organization either cannot accomplish its mission or must operate at degraded capacity. This requirement addresses the configuration of network devices to mitigate the impact of DoS attacks that have occurred or are ongoing on device availability. For each network device, known and potential DoS attacks must be identified and solutions for each type implemented. A variety of technologies exist to limit or, in some cases, eliminate the effects of DoS attacks (e.g., limiting processes or restricting the number of sessions the device opens at one time). Employing increased capacity and bandwidth, combined with service redundancy, may reduce the susceptibility to some DoS attacks. The security safeguards cannot be defined at the DoD level because they vary according to the capabilities of the individual network devices and the security controls applied on the adjacent networks (e.g., firewalls performing packet filtering to block DoS attacks).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to protect against known types of DoS attacks on the route processor. Implementing a CoPP policy as shown in the example below is a best practice method. Step 1: Configure ACLs specific traffic types. R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark our control plane adjacencies are critical R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ospf host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ospf host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit pim host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit pim host x.x.x.x any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit igmp any 224.0.0.0 15.255.255.255 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host x.x.x.x eq bgp host x.x.x.x R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host x.x.x.x eq tacacs any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp x.x.x.x 0.0.0.255 any eq 22 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp host x.x.x.x any eq snmp R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp host x.x.x.x eq ntp any R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark we will want to rate limit ICMP traffic R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any echo R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any echo-reply R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any time-exceeded R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any unreachable R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark management plane traffic that should not be received R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp any any eq ntp R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp any any eq snmp R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp any any eq 22 R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp any any eq 23 R1(config-ext-nacl)#remark control plane traffic not configured on router R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit eigrp any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit udp any any eq rip R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit R1(config)#ip access-list extended CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#exit Step 2: Configure class maps referencing each of the ACLs. R1(config)#class-map match-all CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-any CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-cmap)#match protocol arp R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-all CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-any CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-cmap)#class-map match-all CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-cmap)#match access-group name CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-cmap)#exit Step 3: Configure a policy map referencing the configured class maps and apply appropriate bandwidth allowance and policing attributes. R1(config)#policy-map CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY R1(config-pmap)#class CoPP_CRITICAL R1(config-pmap-c)#police 512000 8000 conform-action transmit exceed-action transmit R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_IMPORTANT R1(config-pmap-c)#police 256000 4000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_NORMAL R1(config-pmap-c)#police 128000 2000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_UNDESIRABLE R1(config-pmap-c)#police 8000 1000 conform-action drop exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#class CoPP_DEFAULT R1(config-pmap-c)#police 64000 1000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop R1(config-pmap-c-police)#exit R1(config-pmap-c)#exit R1(config-pmap)#exit Step 4: Apply the policy map to the control plane. R1(config)#control-plane R1(config-cp)#service-policy input CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY R1(config-cp)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: Verify traffic types have been classified based on importance levels. The following is an example configuration: class-map match-all CoPP_CRITICAL match access-group name CoPP_CRITICAL class-map match-any CoPP_IMPORTANT match access-group name CoPP_IMPORTANT match protocol arp class-map match-all CoPP_NORMAL match access-group name CoPP_NORMAL class-map match-any CoPP_UNDESIRABLE match access-group name CoPP_UNDESIRABLE class-map match-all CoPP_DEFAULT match access-group name CoPP_DEFAULT Step 2: Review the ACLs referenced by the class maps to determine if the traffic is being classified appropriately. The following is an example configuration: ip access-list extended CoPP_CRITICAL remark our control plane adjacencies are critical permit ospf host [OSPF neighbor A] any permit ospf host [OSPF neighbor B] any permit pim host [PIM neighbor A] any permit pim host [PIM neighbor B] any permit pim host [RP addr] any permit igmp any 224.0.0.0 15.255.255.255 permit tcp host [BGP neighbor] eq bgp host [local BGP addr] permit tcp host [BGP neighbor] host [local BGP addr] eq bgp deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_IMPORTANT permit tcp host [TACACS server] eq tacacs any permit tcp [management subnet] 0.0.0.255 any eq 22 permit udp host [SNMP manager] any eq snmp permit udp host [NTP server] eq ntp any deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_NORMAL remark we will want to rate limit ICMP traffic permit icmp any any echo permit icmp any any echo-reply permit icmp any any time-exceeded permit icmp any any unreachable deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_UNDESIRABLE remark other management plane traffic that should not be received permit udp any any eq ntp permit udp any any eq snmp permit tcp any any eq 22 permit tcp any any eq 23 remark other control plane traffic not configured on router permit eigrp any any permit udp any any eq rip deny ip any any ip access-list extended CoPP_DEFAULT permit ip any any Note: Explicitly defining undesirable traffic with ACL entries enables the network operator to collect statistics. Excessive ARP packets can potentially monopolize Route Processor resources, starving other important processes. Currently, ARP is the only Layer 2 protocol that can be specifically classified using the match protocol command. Step 3: Review the policy-map to determine if the traffic is being policed appropriately for each classification. The following is an example configuration: policy-map CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY class CoPP_CRITICAL police 512000 8000 conform-action transmit exceed-action transmit class CoPP_IMPORTANT police 256000 4000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop class CoPP_NORMAL police 128000 2000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop class CoPP_UNDESIRABLE police 8000 1000 conform-action drop exceed-action drop class CoPP_DEFAULT police 64000 1000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop Step 4: Verify that the CoPP policy is enabled. The following is an example configuration: control-plane service-policy input CONTROL_PLANE_POLICY Note: Control Plane Protection (CPPr) can be used to filter as well as police control plane traffic destined to the RP. CPPr is very similar to CoPP and has the ability to filter and police traffic using finer granularity by dividing the aggregate control plane into three separate categories: (1) host, (2) transit, and (3) CEF-exception. Hence, a separate policy-map could be configured for each traffic category. If the Cisco router is not configured to protect against known types of DoS attacks by employing organization-defined security safeguards, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are modified.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001240
Rule ID
SV-105289r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000495-NDM-000318
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when account privileges are modified as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging userinfo R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. hostname R4 ! ! logging userinfo … … … archive log config logging enable Note: The logging userinfo command will log when the administrator increases his or her privilege level while the log config command will log all configuration changes such as changing privilege levels for certain commands. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are modified, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001250
Rule ID
SV-105291r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000499-NDM-000319
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. archive log config logging enable If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001260
Rule ID
SV-105293r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000503-NDM-000320
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur as shown in the example below. R5(config)#login on-failure log R5(config)#login on-success log

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. login on-failure log login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records for privileged activities.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001270
Rule ID
SV-105295r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000504-NDM-000321
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records for privileged activities as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example configurations below. archive log config logging enable If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records for privileged activities, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must generate audit records showing starting and ending time for administrator access to the system.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001280
Rule ID
SV-105297r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000505-NDM-000322
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001290
Rule ID
SV-105299r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000506-NDM-000323
CCI
CCI-000172
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur as shown in the example below. R5(config)#login on-success log

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to off-load log records onto a different system than the system being audited.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001310
Rule ID
SV-105301r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000515-NDM-000325
CCI
CCI-001851
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity.

Fix Text

Configure the Cisco router to send log records to a syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the Cisco router is not configured to off-load log records onto a different system than the system being audited, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must notify the administrator of the number of successful logon attempts occurring during an organization-defined time period.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001330
Rule ID
SV-105303r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000332
CCI
CCI-001391
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their network device management account. Providing administrators with information regarding the date and time of their last successful login allows the administrator to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. This incorporates all methods of login including, but not limited to, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, and physical connectivity. The organization-defined time period is dependent on the frequency with which administrators typically log in to the network device.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must use automated mechanisms to alert security personnel to threats identified by authoritative sources (e.g., CTOs) and in accordance with CJCSM 6510.01B.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001340
Rule ID
SV-105305r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000333
CCI
CCI-001274
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

By immediately displaying an alarm message, potential security violations can be identified more quickly even when administrators are not logged into the network device.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server that can send alerts to the appropriate personnel. Verify that the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the router is not configured to send log messages to a syslog server, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to use an authentication server for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001370
Rule ID
SV-105307r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000336
CCI
CCI-000370
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Centralized management of user accounts and authentication increases the administrative access to the router. This control is particularly important protection against the insider threat. With robust centralized management, audit records for administrator account access to the organization's network devices can be more readily analyzed for trends and anomalies. The alternative method of defining administrator accounts on each device exposes the device configuration to remote access authentication attacks and system administrators with multiple authenticators for each network device.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the Cisco router is not configured to use an authentication server for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must employ automated mechanisms to centrally apply authentication settings.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001380
Rule ID
SV-105309r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000337
CCI
CCI-000371
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The use of authentication servers or other centralized management servers for providing centralized authentication services is required for network device management. Maintaining local administrator accounts for daily usage on each network device without centralized management is not scalable or feasible. Without centralized management, it is likely that credentials for some network devices will be forgotten, leading to delays in administration, which itself leads to delays in remediating production problems and in addressing compromises in a timely fashion.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must employ automated mechanisms to centrally verify authentication settings.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001390
Rule ID
SV-105311r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000338
CCI
CCI-000372
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The use of authentication servers or other centralized management servers for providing centralized authentication services is required for network device management. Maintaining local administrator accounts for daily usage on each network device without centralized management is not scalable or feasible. Without centralized management, it is likely that credentials for some network devices will be forgotten, leading to delays in administration, which itself leads to delays in remediating production problems and in addressing compromises in a timely fashion.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must employ automated mechanisms to detect the addition of unauthorized components or devices.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001400
Rule ID
SV-105313r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000339
CCI
CCI-000416
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

This requirement addresses configuration management of the network device. The network device must automatically detect the installation of unauthorized software or hardware onto the device itself. Monitoring may be accomplished on an ongoing basis or by periodic monitoring. Automated mechanisms can be implemented within the network device and/or in another separate information system or device. If the addition of unauthorized components or devices is not automatically detected, then such components or devices could be used for malicious purposes, such as transferring sensitive data to removable media for compromise.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send SNMP traps to the SNMP manager as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server enable traps R4(config)#snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth xxxxx The above command will enable all possible traps and is not necessary—selective set of traps can be enabled as required.

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to send SNMP traps and notifications to the SNMP manager for the purpose of sending alarms and notifying appropriate personnel as required by specific events. The SNMP configuration should contain commands similar to the example below. snmp-server enable traps snmp authentication linkdown linkup coldstart warmstart snmp-server enable traps vrrp snmp-server enable traps eigrp snmp-server enable traps cpu threshold … … … snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap add snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap delete snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap attach snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap detach snmp-server enable traps ipsec tunnel start snmp-server enable traps ipsec tunnel stop snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth xxxxx Note: The above is a subset of all the possible traps that can be enabled. Selective traps can be enabled as required. If the router is not configured to send traps to the SNMP manager, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must employ automated mechanisms to assist in the tracking of security incidents.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001430
Rule ID
SV-105317r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000342
CCI
CCI-000833
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Despite the investment in perimeter defense technologies, enclaves are still faced with detecting, analyzing, and remediating network breaches and exploits that have made it past the network device. An automated incident response infrastructure allows network operations to immediately react to incidents by identifying, analyzing, and mitigating any network device compromise. Incident response teams can perform root cause analysis, determine how the exploit proliferated, and identify all affected nodes, as well as contain and eliminate the threat. The network device assists in the tracking of security incidents by logging detected security events. The audit log and network device application logs capture different types of events. The audit log tracks audit events occurring on the components of the network device. The application log tracks the results of the network device content filtering function. These logs must be aggregated into a centralized server and can be used as part of the organization's security incident tracking and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server that can be used to assist in the tracking of security incidents. Verify that the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the router is not configured to send log messages to a syslog server, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to send log data to a syslog server for the purpose of forwarding alerts to the administrators and the ISSO.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001450
Rule ID
SV-105321r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000317
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The aggregation of log data kept on a syslog server can be used to detect attacks and trigger an alert to the appropriate security personnel. The stored log data can used to detect weaknesses in security that enable the network IA team to find and address these weaknesses before breaches can occur. Reviewing these logs, whether before or after a security breach, are important in showing whether someone is an internal employee or an outside threat.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging trap notifications

Check Content

Verify that the router is configured to send logs to a syslog server. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging trap notifications logging x.x.x.x Note: Default for sending log messages to the syslog server is informational (level 6); hence, the command logging trap informational will not be seen in the configuration. Level of log messages sent to the syslog server can be verified using the show logging command. If the router is not configured to send log data to the syslog server, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be configured to send SNMP traps and notifications to the SNMP manager for the purpose of sending alarms and notifying appropriate personnel as required by specific events.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001460
Rule ID
SV-105323r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000317
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If appropriate actions are not taken when a network device failure occurs, a denial of service condition may occur which could result in mission failure since the network would be operating without a critical security monitoring and prevention function. Upon detecting a failure of any router components, the router must activate a system alert message, send an alarm, or shut down. By immediately displaying an alarm message, potential security violations can be identified more quickly even when administrators are not logged into the device. This can be facilitated by the router sending SNMP traps to the SNMP manager that can then have the necessary action taken by automatic or operator intervention.

Fix Text

Configure the router to send SNMP traps to the SNMP manager. R4(config)#snmp-server enable traps R4(config)#snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth xxxxx The above command will enable all possible traps and is not necessary—selective set of traps can be enabled as required.

Check Content

Verify that the router is configured to send traps to the SNMP manager. The SNMP configuration should contain commands similar to the example below. snmp-server enable traps snmp authentication linkdown linkup coldstart warmstart snmp-server enable traps vrrp snmp-server enable traps eigrp snmp-server enable traps cpu threshold … … … snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap add snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap delete snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap attach snmp-server enable traps ipsec cryptomap detach snmp-server enable traps ipsec tunnel start snmp-server enable traps ipsec tunnel stop snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth xxxxx Note: The above is a subset of all the possible traps that can be enabled. Selective traps can be enabled as required. If the router is not configured to send traps to the SNMP manager, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must be running an IOS release that is currently supported by Cisco Systems.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-001470
Rule ID
SV-105325r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000317
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Network devices running an unsupported operating system lack current security fixes required to mitigate the risks associated with recent vulnerabilities. Running a supported release also enables operations to maintain a stable and reliable network provided by improved quality of service and security features.

Fix Text

Upgrade the router to a supported release.

Check Content

Verify that the router is in compliance with this requirement by having the router administrator enter the following command: show version Verify that the release is still supported by Cisco. All releases supported by Cisco can be found on the following URL: www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/ios-nx-os-software If the router is not running a supported release, this is a finding.

The Cisco router must prohibit password reuse for a minimum of five generations.

Finding ID
CISC-ND-000560
Rule ID
SV-106243r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000165-NDM-000253
CCI
CCI-000200
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. To meet password policy requirements, passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals. If the network device allows the user to consecutively reuse their password when that password has exceeded its defined lifetime, the end result is a password that is not changed as per policy requirements.

Fix Text

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use an authentication server as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use an authentication server for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 4 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

Check Content

The Cisco router is not compliant with this requirement. However, the risk associated with this requirement can be fully mitigated if the router is configured to utilize an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access. Review the router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 10 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the router is not configured to use an authentication server to authenticate and authorize users for administrative access, this is a finding.