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Central Log Server Security Requirements Guide

Version 1 Release 0.1
2018-08-232018-04-25
U_Central_Log_Server_SRG_V1R0-1_Manual-xccdf.xml
This Security Requirements Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: disa.stig_spt@mail.mil.

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Vulnerabilities (117)

The Central Log Server must be configured to protect the data sent from hosts and devices from being altered in a way that may prevent the attribution of an action to an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual).

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000080-AU-000010
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000080-AU-000010_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000080-AU-000010
CCI
CCI-000166
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without non-repudiation, it is impossible to positively attribute an action to an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual). The records stored by the Central Log Server must be protected against such alteration as removing the identifier. A hash is one way of performing this function. The server must not allow the removal of identifiers or date/time, or it must severely restrict the ability to do so. Additionally, the log administrator access and activity with the user account information.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to use a hash or other method that protects the data against alteration of the log information sent from hosts and devices. Configure the Central Log Server to not allow alterations to the machine data.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured with a hash or other method that protects the data against alteration of the log information sent from hosts and devices. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to log all changes to the machine data. If the Central Log Server is not configured to protect against an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual) falsely denying having performed organization-defined actions to be covered by non-repudiation, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to aggregate log records from organization-defined devices and hosts within its scope of coverage).

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000020
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000020_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000020
CCI
CCI-000174
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application is not configured to collate records based on the time when the events occurred, the ability to perform forensic analysis and investigations across multiple components is significantly degraded. Centralized log aggregation must also include logs from databases and servers (e.g., Windows) that do not natively send logs using the syslog protocol.

Fix Text

For each log server, configure the server to aggregate log records from organization-defined devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Examine the documentation that lists the scope of coverage for the specific log server being reviewed. Verify the system is configured to aggregate log records from organization-defined devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not configured to aggregate log records from organization-defined devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

Time stamps recorded on the log records in the Central Log Server must be configured to synchronize to within one second of the host server or, if NTP is configured directly in the log server, the NTP server must be the same as the host and devices within its scope of coverage.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000030
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000030_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000030
CCI
CCI-000174
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application is not configured to collate records based on the time when the events occurred, the ability to perform forensic analysis and investigations across multiple components is significantly degraded. Log records are time correlated if the time stamps in the individual log records can be reliably related to the time stamps in other log records to achieve a time ordering of the records within an organization-defined level of tolerance. This requirement applies only to applications that compile system-wide log records for multiple systems or system components.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server such that time stamps on the log records are synchronized to within one second of the host server. If NTP is configured within the Central Log Server application, verify it is configured to use the same NTP server as the host and devices within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Examine the time stamp that indicates when the Central Log Server received the log records. Verify the time is synchronized to within one second of the host server. If NTP is configured within the Central Log Server application, verify it is configured to use the same NTP server as the host and devices within its scope of coverage. If time stamps recorded on the log records in the he Central Log Server are not configured to synchronize to within one second of the host server or the log server application is not configured to use the same time NTP server as the host and devices within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

Where multiple log servers are installed in the enclave, each log server must be configured to aggregate log records to a central aggregation server or other consolidated events repository.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000390
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000390_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000390
CCI
CCI-000174
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Log servers (e.g., syslog servers) are often used on network segments to consolidate from the devices and hosts on that network segment. However, this does not achieve compliance with the DoD requirement for a centralized enclave log server. To comply with this requirement, create a central log server that aggregates multiple log servers or use another method to ensure log analysis and management is centrally managed and available to enterprise forensics and analysis tools. This server is often called a log aggregator, SIEM, or events server.

Fix Text

Where multiple log servers are installed in the enclave, configure each log server to forward logs to a consolidated aggregation server.

Check Content

Examine the network architecture and documentation. If the log server being reviewed is one of multiple log servers in the enclave or on a network segment, verify that an aggregation server exists and that the log server under review is configured to send records received from the host and devices to the aggregation server or centralized SIEM/events sever. Where multiple log servers are installed in the enclave, if each log server is not configured to send log records to a central aggregation server or other consolidated events repository, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server log records must be configured to use the syslog protocol or another industry standard format (e.g., Windows event protocol) that can be used by typical analysis tools.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000088-AU-000040
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000088-AU-000040_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000088-AU-000040
CCI
CCI-001353
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without a standardized format for log records, the ability to perform forensic analysis may be more difficult. Standardization facilitates production of event information that can be more readily analyzed and correlated. Log information that is normalized to common standards promotes interoperability and exchange of such information between dissimilar devices and information systems. If logging mechanisms within applications that send records to the centralized audit system do not conform to standardized formats, the audit system may convert the records into a standardized format when compiling system-wide audit trails. Thus, although the application and other system components should send the information in a standardized format, ultimately the audit aggregation server is responsible for ensuring the records are compiled to meet this requirement.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server log records to use the syslog protocol or another industry standard format (e.g., Windows event protocol) that can be used by typical analysis tools.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify log records are configured to use the syslog protocol or another industry standard format (e.g., Windows event protocol) that can be used by a typical analysis tools. If the Central Log Server log records are not configured to use the syslog protocol or another industry standard format (e.g., Windows event protocol) that can be used by typical analysis tools, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to retain the DoD-defined attributes of the log records sent by the devices and hosts.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000089-AU-000400
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000089-AU-000400_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000089-AU-000400
CCI
CCI-000169
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Log records can be generated from various components within the application (e.g., process, module). Certain specific application functionalities may be audited as well. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating log records. DoD has defined a list of information or attributes that must be included in the log record, including date, time, source, destination, module, severity level (category of information), etc. Other log record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this policy includes, for example, time stamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, filenames involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to retain the DoD-defined attributes of the log records sent by the devices and hosts.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server retains the DoD-defined attributes of the log records sent by the devices and hosts. If the Central Log Server is not configured to retain the DoD-defined attributes of the log records sent by the devices and hosts, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to allow only the Information System Security Manager (ISSM) (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be retained.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000090-AU-000070
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000090-AU-000070_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000090-AU-000070
CCI
CCI-000171
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without restricting which roles and individuals can select which events are audited, unauthorized personnel may be able to prevent the auditing of critical events. Misconfigured audits may degrade the system's performance by overwhelming the audit log. Misconfigured audits may also make it more difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating log records.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be retained.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be retained. If the Central Log Server is not configured to allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be retained, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform analysis of log records across multiple devices and hosts in the enclave that can be reviewed by authorized individuals.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000111-AU-000150
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000111-AU-000150_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000111-AU-000150
CCI
CCI-000154
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Successful incident response and auditing relies on timely, accurate system information and analysis to allow the organization to identify and respond to potential incidents in a proficient manner. If the application does not provide the ability to centrally review the application logs, forensic analysis is negatively impacted. Segregation of logging data to multiple disparate computer systems is counterproductive and makes log analysis and event notification difficult to implement and manage, particularly when the system or application has multiple logging components written to different locations or systems. Automated mechanisms for centralized reviews and analyses include, for example, Security Information Management products.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform analysis of log records across multiple devices and hosts in the enclave that can be reviewed by authorized individuals.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to perform analysis of log records across multiple devices and hosts in the enclave that can be reviewed by authorized individuals. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform analysis of log records across multiple devices and hosts in the enclave that can be reviewed by authorized individuals, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform on-demand filtering of the log records for events of interest based on organization-defined criteria.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000115-AU-000160
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000115-AU-000160_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000115-AU-000160
CCI
CCI-000158
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to specify the event criteria that are of interest provides the persons reviewing the logs with the ability to quickly isolate and identify these events without having to review entries that are of little or no consequence to the investigation. Without this capability, forensic investigations are impeded. Events of interest can be identified by the content of specific log record fields including, for example, identities of individuals, event types, event locations, event times, event dates, system resources involved, IP addresses involved, or information objects accessed. Organizations may define audit event criteria to any degree of granularity required; for example, locations selectable by general networking location (e.g., by network or subnetwork) or by specific information system component. This requires applications to be configured to customize log record reports based on organization-defined criteria. Summary reports provide oversight for security devices, helping to identify when a device is not detecting or blocking to the extent one would expect. A simple “top 10” list of what was detected and blocked, with a count by severity, can help prioritize security responses. Operational reports detailing the source hosts for any given malware can then direct remediation responses.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform on-demand filtering of the log records for events of interest based on organization-defined criteria.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to perform on-demand filtering of the log records for events of interest based on organization-defined criteria. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform on-demand filtering of the log records for events of interest based on organization-defined criteria, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to use internal system clocks to generate time stamps for log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000116-AU-000270
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000116-AU-000270_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000116-AU-000270
CCI
CCI-000159
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without an internal clock used as the reference for the time stored on each event to provide a trusted common reference for the time, forensic analysis would be impeded. Determining the correct time a particular event occurred on a system is critical when conducting forensic analysis and investigating system events. If the internal clock is not used, the system may not be able to provide time stamps for log messages. Additionally, externally generated time stamps may not be accurate. Applications can use the capability of an operating system or purpose-built module for this purpose.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to use internal system clocks to generate time stamps for log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server uses internal system clocks to generate time stamps for log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to use internal system clocks to generate time stamps for log records, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to back up the log records repository at least every seven days onto a different system or system component than the system or component being audited.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000300
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000300_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000300
CCI
CCI-001348
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Protection of log data includes ensuring log data is not accidentally lost or deleted. Backing up log records to a different system or onto separate media than the system being audited on an organizationally defined frequency helps to ensure that in the event of a catastrophic system failure, the log records will be retained. This helps to ensure that a compromise of the information system being audited does not also result in a compromise of the log records. This requirement only applies to applications that have a native backup capability for log records. Operating system backup requirements cover applications that do not provide native backup functions.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to back up the log records repository at least every seven days onto a different system or system component than the system or component being audited.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server log records repository is backed up at least every seven days onto a different system or system component than the system or component being audited. If the Central Log Server is not configured to back up the log records repository at least every seven days onto a different system or system component than the system or component being audited, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server system backups must be stored on media capable of guaranteeing file integrity for a minimum of five years.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000310
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000310_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000310
CCI
CCI-001348
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If backups are not properly processed, protected, and stored on appropriate media, recovery from a system failure or implementation of a contingency plan would not include the data necessary to fully recover in the time required to ensure continued mission support.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server system to back up to media capable of guaranteeing file integrity for a minimum of five years.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server system is backed up to media capable of guaranteeing file integrity for a minimum of five years. If the Central Log Server system backups are not stored on appropriate media capable of guaranteeing file integrity for a minimum of five years, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand reporting requirements.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000181-AU-000200
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000181-AU-000200_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000181-AU-000200
CCI
CCI-001876
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to generate on-demand reports, including after the audit data has been subjected to audit reduction, greatly facilitates the organization's ability to generate incident reports as needed to better handle larger-scale or more complex security incidents. Audit reduction is a process that manipulates collected audit information and organizes such information in a summary format that is more meaningful to analysts. The report generation capability provided by the application must support on-demand (i.e., customizable, ad hoc, and as-needed) reports. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand reporting requirements.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand reporting requirements. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand reporting requirements, this is a finding.

For devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must be configured to notify the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) when account modification events are received.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000292-AU-000420
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000292-AU-000420_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000292-AU-000420
CCI
CCI-001684
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

When application accounts are modified, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are used for identifying individual users or for identifying the application processes themselves. Sending notification of account modification events to the SA and ISSO is one method for mitigating this risk. Such a function greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. Notification may be configured to be sent by the device, SNMP server, or the Central Log Server. The best practice is for these notifications to be sent by a robust events management server.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to notify the SA and ISSO when account modification events are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if notifications are performed by another device. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to notify the SA and ISSO when account modification events are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not configured to notify the SA and ISSO when account modification events are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

For devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must notify the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) when events indicating account disabling actions are received.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000293-AU-000430
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000293-AU-000430_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000293-AU-000430
CCI
CCI-001685
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

When application accounts are disabled, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are used for identifying individual users or for identifying the application processes themselves. Sending notification of account disabling events to the SA and ISSO is one method for mitigating this risk. Such a function greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. Notification may be configured to be sent by the device, SNMP server, or Central Log Server. The best practice is for these notifications to be sent by a robust events management server.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account disabling actions are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if notifications are performed by another device. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account disabling actions are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server does not notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account disabling actions are received, this is a finding.

For devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must notify the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) when events indicating account removal actions are received.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000294-AU-000440
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000294-AU-000440_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000294-AU-000440
CCI
CCI-001686
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

When application accounts are removed, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are used for identifying users or for identifying the application processes themselves. Sending notification of account removal events to the SA and ISSO is one method for mitigating this risk. Such a function greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. Notification may be configured to be sent by the device, SNMP server, or Central Log Server. The best practice is for these notifications to be sent by a robust events management server.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account removal actions are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if notifications are performed by another device. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account removal actions are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server does not notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account removal actions are received, this is a finding.

The System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Manager (ISSM) must configure the retention of the log records based on criticality level, event type, and/or retention period, at a minimum.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000050
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000050_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000050
CCI
CCI-001914
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If authorized individuals do not have the ability to modify auditing parameters in response to a changing threat environment, the organization may not be able to respond effectively and important forensic information may be lost. The organization must define and document log retention requirements for each device and host and then configure the Central Log Sever to comply with the required retention period. This requirement enables organizations to extend or limit auditing as necessary to meet organizational requirements. Auditing that is limited to conserve information system resources may be extended to address certain threat situations. In addition, auditing may be limited to a specific set of events to facilitate audit reduction, analysis, and reporting. Organizations can establish time thresholds in which audit actions are changed; for example, in near real time, within minutes, or within hours.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server with the privileges needed to allow the SA and ISSM to change the level and type of log records that are retained in the centralized repository based on any selectable event criteria. Based on the documented requirements for each application, configure the events server to retain log records based on criticality level, type of event, and/or retention period, at a minimum.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the SA and ISSM have been assigned the privileges needed to allow these roles to change the level and type of log records that are retained in the centralized repository based on any selectable event criteria. Verify the retention configuration for each host and device is in compliance with the documented organization criteria, including the identified criticality level, event type, and/or retention period. If the Central Log Server is not configured to allow the SA and ISSM to change the retention of the log records, this is a finding. If the retention is not in compliance with the organization’s documentation, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured so changes made to the level and type of log records stored in the centralized repository must take effect immediately without the need to reboot or restart the application.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000060
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000060_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000060
CCI
CCI-001914
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If authorized individuals do not have the ability to modify auditing parameters in response to a changing threat environment, the organization may not be able to respond effectively and important forensic information may be lost. This requirement enables organizations to extend or limit auditing as necessary to meet organizational requirements. Auditing that is limited to conserve information system resources may be extended to address certain threat situations. In addition, auditing may be limited to a specific set of events to facilitate audit reduction, analysis, and reporting. Organizations can establish time thresholds in which audit actions are changed; for example, in near real time, within minutes, or within hours.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server so changes made to the level and type of log records stored in the centralized repository must take effect immediately without the need to reboot or restart the application.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured so changes made to the level and type of log records stored in the centralized repository take effect immediately without the need to reboot or restart the application. If the Central Log Server is not configured so changes made to the level and type of log records stored in the centralized repository must take effect immediately without the need to reboot or restart the application, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to allow selection, capture, and view of all events related to a user session, host, or device when required by authorized users.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000354-AU-000080
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000354-AU-000080_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000354-AU-000080
CCI
CCI-001919
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the system is not configured to select a user session to capture and view or produce a report, investigations into suspicious or harmful events would be hampered by the volume of information captured. The volume of information captured may also adversely impact the operation for the network. This only includes auditable events. The Central Log Server (i.e., SIEM, syslog server) should be able to correlate across multiple devices and hosts within its span of control to provide an aggregated view of the single user's activity.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to allow selection, capture, and view of all events related to a user session, host, or device when required by authorized users.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to allow selection, capture, and view of all events related to a user session, host, or device when required by authorized users. If the Central Log Server is not configured to allow selection, capture, and view of all events related to a user session, host, or device when required by authorized users, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured for centralized management of the events repository for the purposes of configuration, analysis, and reporting.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000356-AU-000090
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000356-AU-000090_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000356-AU-000090
CCI
CCI-001844
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application is not configured to centrally manage the content captured in the log records, identification, troubleshooting, and correlation of suspicious behavior would be difficult and could lead to a delayed or incomplete analysis of an ongoing attack. The content captured in log records must be managed from a central location (necessitating automation). Centralized management of log records and logs provides for efficiency in maintenance and management of records, as well as the backup and archiving of those records. Application components requiring centralized audit log management must be configured to support centralized management.

Fix Text

Configure access for management tools used by administrators at management workstations, particularly those used for remote access. This often uses user access profiles or remote access configuration to enable secure and authorized access to the Central Log Server. Enable management from one or more management workstations or a secure browser. Verify remote communications from the management station using a secure, approved version of the protocol (e.g., TLS). Limit access based on user role, location, or remote device wherever possible.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify that centralized management of the events repository is enabled and configured for all hosts and devices within the scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not enabled to allow centralized management of the events repository for the purposes of configuration, analysis, and reporting, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to off-load log records onto a different system or media than the system being audited.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000358-AU-000100
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000358-AU-000100_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000358-AU-000100
CCI
CCI-001851
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity. Although this may be part of the operating system function, for the enterprise events management system, this is most often a function managed through the application since it is a critical function and requires the use of a large amount of external storage.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to off-load log records onto a different system or media than the system being audited.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if an external application or operating system manages this function. Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to off-load log records onto a different system or media than the system being audited. If the Central Log Server is not configured to off-load log records onto a different system or media than the system being audited, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to send an immediate alert to the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) (at a minimum) when allocated log record storage volume reaches 75 percent of the repository maximum log record storage capacity.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000359-AU-000120
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000359-AU-000120_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000359-AU-000120
CCI
CCI-001855
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If security personnel are not notified immediately upon storage volume utilization reaching 75 percent, they are unable to plan for storage capacity expansion. Although this may be part of the operating system function, for the enterprise events management system, this is most often a function managed through the application since it is a critical function and requires the use of a large amount of external storage.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to send an immediate alert to the SA, ISSO, and other authorized personnel when allocated log record storage volume reaches 75 percent of repository maximum log record storage capacity.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if an external application or operating system manages this function. Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to send an immediate warning to the SA and ISSO (at a minimum) when allocated log record storage volume reaches 75 percent of the repository's maximum log record storage capacity. If the Central Log Server is not configured to send an immediate alert to the SA and ISSO (at a minimum) when allocated log record storage volume reaches 75 percent of repository maximum log record storage capacity, this is a finding.

For the host and devices within its scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must be configured to send a real-time alert to the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) (at a minimum) of all audit failure events, such as loss of communications with hosts and devices, or if log records are no longer being received.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000360-AU-000130
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000360-AU-000130_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000360-AU-000130
CCI
CCI-001858
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit function and application operation may be adversely affected. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less). User-configurable controls on the Central Log Server help avoid generating excessive numbers of alert messages. Define realistic alerting limits and thresholds to avoid creating excessive numbers of alerts for noncritical events. This requirement must be mapped to the severity levels used by the system to denote a failure, active attack, attack involving multiple systems, and other critical notifications, at a minimum. However, note that the IDS/IDPS and other monitoring systems may already be configured for direct notification of many types of critical security alerts.

Fix Text

For the host and devices within its scope of coverage, configure the Central Log Server to send an immediate real-time alert to the SA and ISSO, at a minimum, of all audit failure events such as loss of communications with hosts and devices, or if log records are no longer being received.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to send an alert to the SA and ISSO, within seconds or less, when communication is lost with any host or device within the scope of coverage that may indicate an audit failure. Verify the system is configured to send an alert if hosts and devices stop sending log records to the Central Log Server. If the Central Log Server is not configured to send a real-time alert to the SA and ISSO (at a minimum) of all audit failure events, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to send an immediate alert to the System Administrator (SA) or Information System Security Officer (ISSO) if communication with the host and devices within its scope of coverage is lost.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000361-AU-000140
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000361-AU-000140_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000361-AU-000140
CCI
CCI-001861
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the system were to continue processing after audit failure, actions could be taken on the system that could not be tracked and recorded for later forensic analysis. To perform this function, some type of heartbeat configuration with all of the devices and hosts must be configured. Because of the importance of ensuring mission/business continuity, organizations may determine that the nature of the audit failure is not so severe that it warrants a complete shutdown of the application supporting the core organizational missions/business operations. In those instances, partial application shutdowns or operating in a degraded mode may be viable alternatives. This requirement applies to each audit data storage repository (i.e., distinct information system component where log records are stored), the centralized audit storage capacity of organizations (i.e., all audit data storage repositories combined), or both.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to send an immediate alert to the SA or ISSO if communication with the host and devices within its scope of coverage is lost.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to send an immediate alert to the SA or ISSO if communication with the host and devices within its scope of coverage is lost. If the Central Log Server is not configured to send an immediate alert to the SA or ISSO if communication with the host and devices within its scope of coverage is lost, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform on-demand sorting of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000362-AU-000170
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000362-AU-000170_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000362-AU-000170
CCI
CCI-001886
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to sort the log records to better view events of interest provides the persons reviewing the logs with the ability to quickly isolate and identify these events without having to review entries that are of little or no consequence to the investigation. Without this capability, forensic investigations are impeded. This requires applications to be configured to sort log record reports based on organization-defined criteria.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform on-demand sorting of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to perform on-demand sorting of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform on-demand sorting of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform on-demand searches of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000363-AU-000180
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000363-AU-000180_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000363-AU-000180
CCI
CCI-001887
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to search the log records to better view events of interest provides the persons reviewing the logs with the ability to quickly isolate and identify these events without having to review entries that are of little or no consequence to the investigation. Without this capability, forensic investigations are impeded. This requires applications to provide the capability to search log record reports based on organization-defined criteria.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform on-demand searches of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server performs on-demand searches of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform on-demand searches of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand audit review and analysis.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000364-AU-000190
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000364-AU-000190_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000364-AU-000190
CCI
CCI-001875
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to perform on-demand audit review and analysis, including after the audit data has been subjected to audit reduction, greatly facilitates the organization's ability to generate incident reports as needed to better handle larger-scale or more complex security incidents. Audit reduction is a technique used to reduce the volume of log records to facilitate a manual review. Audit reduction does not alter original log records. The report generation capability provided by the application must support on-demand (i.e., customizable, ad hoc, and as-needed) reports. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand audit review and analysis.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system performs audit reduction that supports on-demand audit review and analysis. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand audit review and analysis, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform audit reduction that supports after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000365-AU-000210
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000365-AU-000210_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000365-AU-000210
CCI
CCI-001877
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the audit reduction capability does not support after-the-fact investigations, it is difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack or identify those responses for one. This capability is also required to comply with applicable Federal laws and DoD policies. Audit reduction capability must support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents either natively or through the use of third-party tools. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform audit reduction that supports after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server performs audit reduction that supports after-the-fact investigations of security incidents. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform audit reduction that supports after-the-fact investigations of security incidents, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to generate on-demand audit review and analysis reports.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000366-AU-000220
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000366-AU-000220_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000366-AU-000220
CCI
CCI-001878
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The report generation capability must support on-demand review and analysis to facilitate the organization's ability to generate incident reports as needed to better handle larger-scale or more complex security incidents. Report generation must be capable of generating on-demand (i.e., customizable, ad hoc, and as-needed) reports. On-demand reporting allows personnel to report issues more rapidly to more effectively meet reporting requirements. Collecting log data and aggregating it to present the data in a single, consolidated report achieves this objective. Audit reduction and report generation capabilities do not always reside on the same information system or within the same organizational entities conducting auditing activities. The audit reduction capability can include, for example, modern data mining techniques with advanced data filters to identify anomalous behavior in log records. The report generation capability provided by the information system can generate customizable reports. Time ordering of log records can be a significant issue if the granularity of the timestamp in the record is insufficient. This requirement is specific to applications with report generation capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to generate on-demand audit review and analysis reports.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server generates on-demand audit review and analysis reports. If the Central Log Server is not configured to generate on-demand audit review and analysis reports, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to generate reports that support on-demand reporting requirements.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000367-AU-000230
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000367-AU-000230_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000367-AU-000230
CCI
CCI-001879
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The report generation capability must support on-demand reporting to facilitate the organization's ability to generate incident reports as needed to better handle larger-scale or more complex security incidents The report generation capability provided by the application must be capable of generating on-demand (i.e., customizable, ad hoc, and as-needed) reports. On-demand reporting allows personnel to report issues more rapidly to more effectively meet reporting requirements. Collecting log data and aggregating it to present the data in a single, consolidated report achieves this objective. This requirement is specific to applications with report generation capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand reporting requirements.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to generate reports that support on-demand reporting requirements.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server generates reports that support on-demand reporting requirements. If the Central Log Server is not configured to generate reports that support on-demand reporting requirements, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to generate reports that support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000368-AU-000240
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000368-AU-000240_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000368-AU-000240
CCI
CCI-001880
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the report generation capability does not support after-the-fact investigations, it is difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack or identify those responses for one. This capability is also required to comply with applicable Federal laws and DoD policies. The report generation capability must support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents either natively or through the use of third-party tools. This requirement is specific to applications with report generation capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand reporting requirements.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to generate reports that support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server generates reports that support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents. If the Central Log Server is not configured to generate reports that support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform audit reduction that does not alter original content or time ordering of log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000369-AU-000250
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000369-AU-000250_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000369-AU-000250
CCI
CCI-001881
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the audit reduction capability alters the content or time ordering of log records, the integrity of the log records is compromised, and the records are no longer usable for forensic analysis. Time ordering refers to the chronological organization of records based on time stamps. The degree of time stamp precision can affect this. Audit reduction is a process that manipulates collected audit information and organizes such information in a summary format that is more meaningful to analysts. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform audit reduction that does not alter original content or time ordering of log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server performs audit reduction that does not alter original content or time ordering of log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform audit reduction that does not alter original content or time ordering of log records, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to generate reports that do not alter original content or time ordering of log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000370-AU-000260
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000370-AU-000260_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000370-AU-000260
CCI
CCI-001882
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the audit report generation capability alters the original content or time ordering of log records, the integrity of the log records is compromised, and the records are no longer usable for forensic analysis. Time ordering refers to the chronological organization of records based on time stamps. The degree of time stamp precision can affect this. The report generation capability provided by the application can generate customizable reports. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to generate reports that do not alter original content or time ordering of log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server generates reports that do not alter original content or time ordering of log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to generate reports that do not alter original content or time ordering of log records, this is a finding.

Upon receipt of the log record from hosts and devices, the Central Log Server must be configured to record time stamps of the time of receipt that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000374-AU-000290
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000374-AU-000290_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000374-AU-000290
CCI
CCI-001890
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in UTC, a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), or local time with an offset from UTC.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to records time stamps of the time the record was received from the host or device. Verify the time stamp is mapped to UTC.

Check Content

Examine the log records stored on the events server. Verify the Central Log Server records time stamps of the time the record was received from the host or device. Verify the time stamp is mapped to UTC. If the Central Log Server is not configured to record time stamps of the time the record was received or the time stamp is not mapped to UTC, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to record time stamps for when log records are received by the log server that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000375-AU-000280
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000375-AU-000280_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000375-AU-000280
CCI
CCI-001889
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without sufficient granularity of time stamps, it is not possible to adequately determine the chronological order of records. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Granularity of time measurements refers to the degree of synchronization between information system clocks and reference clocks.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to record time stamps for when log records are received by the log server that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server records time stamps for when log records are received by the log server that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision. If the Central Log Server is not configured to record time stamps for when log records are received by the log server that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to audit the enforcement actions used to prevent access to modules or functions that can change the account access levels.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000381-AU-000320
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000381-AU-000320_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000381-AU-000320
CCI
CCI-001814
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without auditing the enforcement of access restrictions against changes to the application configuration, it will be difficult to identify attempted attacks, and an audit trail will not be available for forensic investigation for after-the-fact actions. Enforcement actions are the methods or mechanisms used to prevent unauthorized changes to configuration settings. Enforcement action methods may be as simple as denying access to a file based on the application of file permissions (access restriction). Audit items may consist of lists of actions blocked by access restrictions or changes identified after the fact.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to audit the enforcement actions used to prevent access to modules or functions that can change the account access levels.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server audits the enforcement actions used to prevent access to modules or functions that can change the account access levels. If the Central Log Server is not configured to audit the enforcement actions used to prevent access to modules or functions that can change the account access levels, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to off-load interconnected systems in real time and off-load standalone systems weekly, at a minimum.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000515-AU-000110
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000515-AU-000110_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000515-AU-000110
CCI
CCI-001851
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity. Although this may be part of the operating system function, for the enterprise events management system, this is most often a function managed through the application since it is a critical function and requires the use of a large amount of external storage.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to off-load interconnected systems in real time and off-load standalone systems weekly, at a minimum.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if an external application or operating system manages this function. Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to off-load interconnected systems in real time and off-load standalone systems weekly, at a minimum. If the Central Log Server is not configured to off-load interconnected systems in real time and off-load standalone systems weekly, at a minimum, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to retain the identity of the original source host or device where the event occurred as part of the log record.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000330
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000330_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000330
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In this case the information producer is the device based on IP address or some other identifier of the device producing the information. The source of the record must be bound to the record using cryptographic means. Some events servers allow the administrator to retain only portions of the record sent by devices and hosts. This requirement applies to log aggregation servers with the role of fulfilling the DoD requirement for a central log repository. The syslog, SIEM, or other event servers must retain this information with each log record to support incident investigations.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to include the identity of the original source host or device as part of each aggregated log record.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to include the identity of the original source host or device where the event occurred as part of each aggregated log record. If the Central Log Server is not configured to include the identity of the original source host or device where the event occurred as part of the aggregated log record, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server that aggregates log records from hosts and devices must be configured to use TCP for transmission to guarantee delivery.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000340
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000340_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000340
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the default UDP protocol is used for communication between the hosts and devices to the Central Log Server, then log records that do not reach the log server are not detected as a data loss. The use of TCP to transport log records to the log servers guarantees delivery and gives the option to encrypt the traffic if the log server communication is not protected using a management network (preferred) or VPN based on mission requirements.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server that aggregates log records from hosts and devices to use TCP for transmission to guarantee delivery.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to use TCP to guarantee delivery. If the Central Log Server is not configured to use TCP to guarantee delivery, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to notify the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO), at a minimum, when an attack is detected on multiple devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000350
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000350_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000350
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Notification may be configured to be sent by the device, SNMP server, or Central Log Server. The best practice is for these notifications to be sent by a robust events management server. This is a function provided by most enterprise-level SIEMs. If the Central Log Server does not provide this function, it must forward the log records to a log server that does.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to notify the SA and ISSO, at a minimum, when an attack is detected on multiple devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if the Central Log Server (e.g., syslog, SIEM) does not perform analysis. This is NA if notifications are performed by another device. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to notify the SA and ISSO, at a minimum, when an attack is detected on multiple devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not configured to notify the SA and ISSO, at a minimum, when an attack is detected on multiple devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured to automatically create trouble tickets for organization-defined threats and events of interest as they are detected in real time (within seconds).

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000360
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000360_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000360
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In most Central Log Server products today, log review (threat detection), can be automated by creating correlation content matching the organizational-defined Events of Interest (e.g., account change actions, privilege command use, and other AU and AC family controls) to automatically notify or automatically create trouble tickets for threats as they are detected in real time. Auditors have repeatedly expressed a strong preference for automated ticketing. They are also more likely to follow up on the threat and action items needed to address the detected issues if the ticketing process is automated. This is a function provided by most enterprise-level SIEMs. If the Central Log Server does not provide this function, it must forward the log records to a log server that does.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to automatically create trouble tickets for organization-defined threats and events of interest as they are detected in real time (within seconds).

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if the Central Log Server (e.g., syslog) does not perform analysis. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server automatically creates trouble tickets for organization-defined threats and events of interest as they are detected in real time (within seconds). If the Central Log Server is not configured to automatically create trouble tickets for organization-defined threats and events of interest as they are detected in real time (within seconds), this is a finding.

For devices and hosts within the scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must be configured to automatically aggregate events that indicate account actions.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000370
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000370_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000370
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the Central Log Server is configured to filter or remove account log records transmitted by devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, forensic analysis tools will be less effective at detecting and reporting on important attack vectors. A comprehensive account management process must include capturing log records for the creation of user accounts and notification of administrators and/or application owners. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. This requirement addresses the concern that the Central Log Server may be configured to filter out certain levels of information, which may result in the discarding of DoD-required accounting actions addressed in the AC-2 (4) controls such as creation, modification, deletion, and removal of privileged accounts.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to automatically aggregate events that indicate account actions for each device and host within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server automatically aggregates events that indicate account actions for each device and host within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not configured to automatically aggregate events that indicate account actions for each device and host within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

The Central Log Server must be configured with the organization-defined severity or criticality levels of each event that is being sent from individual devices or hosts.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000380
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000380_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000380
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

This requirement supports prioritization functions, which is a major reason why centralized management is a requirement in DoD. This includes different features that help highlight the important events over less critical security events. This may be accomplished by correlating security events with vulnerability data or other asset information. Prioritization algorithms often use severity information provided by the original log source as well.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server with the organization-defined severity or criticality levels of each event that is being sent from individual devices or hosts.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured with the organization-defined severity or criticality levels of each event that is being sent from individual devices or hosts. If the Central Log Server is not configured with the organization-defined severity or criticality levels of each event that is being sent from individual devices or hosts, this is a finding.

Analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications used as part of the Central Log Server must be configured to comply with DoD trusted path and access requirements.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000410
Rule ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000410_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000410
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications, such as analysis tools and other vendor-provided applications, must be secured. Software used to perform additional functions, which resides on the server, must also be secured or could provide a vector for unauthorized access to the events repository.

Fix Text

Configure all analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications used with the Central Log Server to comply with DoD trusted path and access requirements.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications used with the Central Log Server are configured to comply with DoD trusted path and access requirements. If analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications used with the Central Log Server are not configured to comply with DoD trusted path and access requirements, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81105

The Central Log Server must be configured to protect the data sent from hosts and devices from being altered in a way that may prevent the attribution of an action to an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual).

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000080-AU-000010
Rule ID
SV-95819r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000080-AU-000010
CCI
CCI-000166
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without non-repudiation, it is impossible to positively attribute an action to an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual). The records stored by the Central Log Server must be protected against such alteration as removing the identifier. A hash is one way of performing this function. The server must not allow the removal of identifiers or date/time, or it must severely restrict the ability to do so. Additionally, the log administrator access and activity with the user account information.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to use a hash or other method that protects the data against alteration of the log information sent from hosts and devices. Configure the Central Log Server to not allow alterations to the machine data.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured with a hash or other method that protects the data against alteration of the log information sent from hosts and devices. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to log all changes to the machine data. If the Central Log Server is not configured to protect against an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual) falsely denying having performed organization-defined actions to be covered by non-repudiation, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81107

The Central Log Server must be configured to aggregate log records from organization-defined devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000020
Rule ID
SV-95821r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000020
CCI
CCI-000174
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application is not configured to collate records based on the time when the events occurred, the ability to perform forensic analysis and investigations across multiple components is significantly degraded. Centralized log aggregation must also include logs from databases and servers (e.g., Windows) that do not natively send logs using the syslog protocol.

Fix Text

For each log server, configure the server to aggregate log records from organization-defined devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Examine the documentation that lists the scope of coverage for the specific log server being reviewed. Verify the system is configured to aggregate log records from organization-defined devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not configured to aggregate log records from organization-defined devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81109

Time stamps recorded on the log records in the Central Log Server must be configured to synchronize to within one second of the host server or, if NTP is configured directly in the log server, the NTP time source must be the same as the host and devices within its scope of coverage.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000030
Rule ID
SV-95823r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000030
CCI
CCI-000174
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application is not configured to collate records based on the time when the events occurred, the ability to perform forensic analysis and investigations across multiple components is significantly degraded. If the SIEM or other Central Log Server is out of sync with the host and devices for which it stores event logs, this may impact the accuracy of the records stored. Log records are time correlated if the time stamps in the individual log records can be reliably related to the time stamps in other log records to achieve a time ordering of the records within an organization-defined level of tolerance. This requirement applies only to applications that compile system-wide log records for multiple systems or system components. Note: The actual configuration and security requirements for NTP is handled in the host OS or NDM STIGs that are also required as part of a Central Log Server review.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server such that time stamps on the log records are synchronized to within one second of the host server. If applicable, configure the Central Log Server NTP client to use the same NTP time source as the host and devices within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Examine the time stamp that indicates when the Central Log Server received the log records. Verify the time is synchronized to within one second of the host server. If an NTP client is configured within the Central Log Server application, verify it is configured to use the same NTP time source as the host and devices within its scope of coverage. If time stamps recorded on the log records in the Central Log Server are not configured to synchronize to within one second of the host server or the log server application is not configured to use the same NTP time source as the host and devices within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81111

Where multiple log servers are installed in the enclave, each log server must be configured to aggregate log records to a central aggregation server or other consolidated events repository.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000390
Rule ID
SV-95825r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000086-AU-000390
CCI
CCI-000174
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Log servers (e.g., syslog servers) are often used on network segments to consolidate from the devices and hosts on that network segment. However, this does not achieve compliance with the DoD requirement for a centralized enclave log server. To comply with this requirement, create a central log server that aggregates multiple log servers or use another method to ensure log analysis and management is centrally managed and available to enterprise forensics and analysis tools. This server is often called a log aggregator, SIEM, or events server.

Fix Text

Where multiple log servers are installed in the enclave, configure each log server to forward logs to a consolidated aggregation server.

Check Content

Examine the network architecture and documentation. If the log server being reviewed is one of multiple log servers in the enclave or on a network segment, verify that an aggregation server exists and that the log server under review is configured to send records received from the host and devices to the aggregation server or centralized SIEM/events sever. Where multiple log servers are installed in the enclave, if each log server is not configured to send log records to a central aggregation server or other consolidated events repository, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81113

The Central Log Server log records must be configured to use the syslog protocol or another industry standard format (e.g., Windows event protocol) that can be used by typical analysis tools.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000088-AU-000040
Rule ID
SV-95827r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000088-AU-000040
CCI
CCI-001353
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without a standardized format for log records, the ability to perform forensic analysis may be more difficult. Standardization facilitates production of event information that can be more readily analyzed and correlated. Log information that is normalized to common standards promotes interoperability and exchange of such information between dissimilar devices and information systems. If logging mechanisms within applications that send records to the centralized audit system do not conform to standardized formats, the audit system may convert the records into a standardized format when compiling system-wide audit trails. Thus, although the application and other system components should send the information in a standardized format, ultimately the audit aggregation server is responsible for ensuring the records are compiled to meet this requirement.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server log records to use the syslog protocol or another industry standard format (e.g., Windows event protocol) that can be used by typical analysis tools.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify log records are configured to use the syslog protocol or another industry standard format (e.g., Windows event protocol) that can be used by a typical analysis tools. If the Central Log Server log records are not configured to use the syslog protocol or another industry standard format (e.g., Windows event protocol) that can be used by typical analysis tools, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81115

The Central Log Server must be configured to retain the DoD-defined attributes of the log records sent by the devices and hosts.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000089-AU-000400
Rule ID
SV-95829r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000089-AU-000400
CCI
CCI-000169
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Log records can be generated from various components within the application (e.g., process, module). Certain specific application functionalities may be audited as well. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating log records. DoD has defined a list of information or attributes that must be included in the log record, including date, time, source, destination, module, severity level (category of information), etc. Other log record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this policy includes, for example, time stamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, filenames involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to retain the DoD-defined attributes of the log records sent by the devices and hosts.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server retains the DoD-defined attributes of the log records sent by the devices and hosts. If the Central Log Server is not configured to retain the DoD-defined attributes of the log records sent by the devices and hosts, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81117

The Central Log Server must be configured to allow only the Information System Security Manager (ISSM) (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be retained.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000090-AU-000070
Rule ID
SV-95831r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000090-AU-000070
CCI
CCI-000171
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without restricting which roles and individuals can select which events are audited, unauthorized personnel may be able to prevent the auditing of critical events. Misconfigured audits may degrade the system's performance by overwhelming the audit log. Misconfigured audits may also make it more difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating log records.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be retained.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be retained. If the Central Log Server is not configured to allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be retained, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81119

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform analysis of log records across multiple devices and hosts in the enclave that can be reviewed by authorized individuals.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000111-AU-000150
Rule ID
SV-95833r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000111-AU-000150
CCI
CCI-000154
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Successful incident response and auditing relies on timely, accurate system information and analysis to allow the organization to identify and respond to potential incidents in a proficient manner. If the application does not provide the ability to centrally review the application logs, forensic analysis is negatively impacted. Segregation of logging data to multiple disparate computer systems is counterproductive and makes log analysis and event notification difficult to implement and manage, particularly when the system or application has multiple logging components written to different locations or systems. Automated mechanisms for centralized reviews and analyses include, for example, Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) products.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform analysis of log records across multiple devices and hosts in the enclave that can be reviewed by authorized individuals.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to perform analysis of log records across multiple devices and hosts in the enclave that can be reviewed by authorized individuals. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform analysis of log records across multiple devices and hosts in the enclave that can be reviewed by authorized individuals, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81121

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform on-demand filtering of the log records for events of interest based on organization-defined criteria.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000115-AU-000160
Rule ID
SV-95835r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000115-AU-000160
CCI
CCI-000158
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to specify the event criteria that are of interest provides the persons reviewing the logs with the ability to quickly isolate and identify these events without having to review entries that are of little or no consequence to the investigation. Without this capability, forensic investigations are impeded. Events of interest can be identified by the content of specific log record fields including, for example, identities of individuals, event types, event locations, event times, event dates, system resources involved, IP addresses involved, or information objects accessed. Organizations may define audit event criteria to any degree of granularity required; for example, locations selectable by general networking location (e.g., by network or subnetwork) or by specific information system component. This requires applications to be configured to customize log record reports based on organization-defined criteria. Summary reports provide oversight for security devices, helping to identify when a device is not detecting or blocking to the extent one would expect. A simple “top 10” list of what was detected and blocked, with a count by severity, can help prioritize security responses. Operational reports detailing the source hosts for any given malware can then direct remediation responses.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform on-demand filtering of the log records for events of interest based on organization-defined criteria.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to perform on-demand filtering of the log records for events of interest based on organization-defined criteria. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform on-demand filtering of the log records for events of interest based on organization-defined criteria, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81123

The Central Log Server must be configured to use internal system clocks to generate time stamps for log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000116-AU-000270
Rule ID
SV-95837r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000116-AU-000270
CCI
CCI-000159
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without an internal clock used as the reference for the time stored on each event to provide a trusted common reference for the time, forensic analysis would be impeded. Determining the correct time a particular event occurred on a system is critical when conducting forensic analysis and investigating system events. If the internal clock is not used, the system may not be able to provide time stamps for log messages. Additionally, externally generated time stamps may not be accurate. Applications can use the capability of an operating system or purpose-built module for this purpose.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to use internal system clocks to generate time stamps for log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server uses internal system clocks to generate time stamps for log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to use internal system clocks to generate time stamps for log records, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81125

The Central Log Server must be configured to back up the log records repository at least every seven days onto a different system or system component other than the system or component being audited.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000300
Rule ID
SV-95839r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000300
CCI
CCI-001348
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Protection of log data includes ensuring log data is not accidentally lost or deleted. Backing up log records to a different system or onto separate media than the system being audited on an organizationally defined frequency helps to ensure that in the event of a catastrophic system failure, the log records will be retained. This helps to ensure that a compromise of the information system being audited does not also result in a compromise of the log records. This requirement only applies to applications that have a native backup capability for log records. Operating system backup requirements cover applications that do not provide native backup functions.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to back up the log records repository at least every seven days onto a different system or system component other than the system or component being audited.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server log records repository is backed up at least every seven days onto a different system or system component other than the system or component being audited. If the Central Log Server is not configured to back up the log records repository at least every seven days onto a different system or system component other than the system or component being audited, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81127

The Central Log Server system backups must be stored on media capable of guaranteeing file integrity for a minimum of five years.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000310
Rule ID
SV-95841r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000125-AU-000310
CCI
CCI-001348
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If backups are not properly processed, protected, and stored on appropriate media, recovery from a system failure or implementation of a contingency plan would not include the data necessary to fully recover in the time required to ensure continued mission support.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server system to back up to media capable of guaranteeing file integrity for a minimum of five years.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server system is backed up to media capable of guaranteeing file integrity for a minimum of five years. If the Central Log Server system backups are not stored on appropriate media capable of guaranteeing file integrity for a minimum of five years, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81129

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand reporting requirements.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000181-AU-000200
Rule ID
SV-95843r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000181-AU-000200
CCI
CCI-001876
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to generate on-demand reports, including after the audit data has been subjected to audit reduction, greatly facilitates the organization's ability to generate incident reports as needed to better handle larger-scale or more complex security incidents. Audit reduction is a process that manipulates collected audit information and organizes such information in a summary format that is more meaningful to analysts. The report generation capability provided by the application must support on-demand (i.e., customizable, ad hoc, and as-needed) reports. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand reporting requirements.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand reporting requirements. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand reporting requirements, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81131

For devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must be configured to notify the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) when account modification events are received.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000292-AU-000420
Rule ID
SV-95845r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000292-AU-000420
CCI
CCI-001684
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

When application accounts are modified, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are used for identifying individual users or for identifying the application processes themselves. Sending notification of account modification events to the SA and ISSO is one method for mitigating this risk. Such a function greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. Notification may be configured to be sent by the device, SNMP server, or the Central Log Server. The best practice is for these notifications to be sent by a robust events management server.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to notify the SA and ISSO when account modification events are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if notifications are performed by another device. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to notify the SA and ISSO when account modification events are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not configured to notify the SA and ISSO when account modification events are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81133

For devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must notify the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) when events indicating account disabling actions are received.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000293-AU-000430
Rule ID
SV-95847r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000293-AU-000430
CCI
CCI-001685
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

When application accounts are disabled, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are used for identifying individual users or for identifying the application processes themselves. Sending notification of account disabling events to the SA and ISSO is one method for mitigating this risk. Such a function greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. Notification may be configured to be sent by the device, SNMP server, or Central Log Server. The best practice is for these notifications to be sent by a robust events management server.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account disabling actions are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if notifications are performed by another device. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account disabling actions are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server does not notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account disabling actions are received, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81135

For devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must notify the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) when events indicating account removal actions are received.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000294-AU-000440
Rule ID
SV-95849r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000294-AU-000440
CCI
CCI-001686
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

When application accounts are removed, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are used for identifying users or for identifying the application processes themselves. Sending notification of account removal events to the SA and ISSO is one method for mitigating this risk. Such a function greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. Notification may be configured to be sent by the device, SNMP server, or Central Log Server. The best practice is for these notifications to be sent by a robust events management server.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account removal actions are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if notifications are performed by another device. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account removal actions are received for all devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server does not notify the SA and ISSO when events indicating account removal actions are received, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81137

The System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Manager (ISSM) must configure the retention of the log records based on criticality level, event type, and/or retention period, at a minimum.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000050
Rule ID
SV-95851r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000050
CCI
CCI-001914
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If authorized individuals do not have the ability to modify auditing parameters in response to a changing threat environment, the organization may not be able to respond effectively and important forensic information may be lost. The organization must define and document log retention requirements for each device and host and then configure the Central Log Sever to comply with the required retention period. This requirement enables organizations to extend or limit auditing as necessary to meet organizational requirements. Auditing that is limited to conserve information system resources may be extended to address certain threat situations. In addition, auditing may be limited to a specific set of events to facilitate audit reduction, analysis, and reporting. Organizations can establish time thresholds in which audit actions are changed; for example, in near real time, within minutes, or within hours.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server with the privileges needed to allow the SA and ISSM to change the level and type of log records that are retained in the centralized repository based on any selectable event criteria. Based on the documented requirements for each application, configure the events server to retain log records based on criticality level, type of event, and/or retention period, at a minimum.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the SA and ISSM have been assigned the privileges needed to allow these roles to change the level and type of log records that are retained in the centralized repository based on any selectable event criteria. Verify the retention configuration for each host and device is in compliance with the documented organization criteria, including the identified criticality level, event type, and/or retention period. If the Central Log Server is not configured to allow the SA and ISSM to change the retention of the log records, this is a finding. If the retention is not in compliance with the organization’s documentation, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81139

The Central Log Server must be configured so changes made to the level and type of log records stored in the centralized repository must take effect immediately without the need to reboot or restart the application.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000060
Rule ID
SV-95853r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000353-AU-000060
CCI
CCI-001914
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If authorized individuals do not have the ability to modify auditing parameters in response to a changing threat environment, the organization may not be able to respond effectively and important forensic information may be lost. This requirement enables organizations to extend or limit auditing as necessary to meet organizational requirements. Auditing that is limited to conserve information system resources may be extended to address certain threat situations. In addition, auditing may be limited to a specific set of events to facilitate audit reduction, analysis, and reporting. Organizations can establish time thresholds in which audit actions are changed; for example, in near real time, within minutes, or within hours.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server so changes made to the level and type of log records stored in the centralized repository must take effect immediately without the need to reboot or restart the application.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured so changes made to the level and type of log records stored in the centralized repository take effect immediately without the need to reboot or restart the application. If the Central Log Server is not configured so changes made to the level and type of log records stored in the centralized repository must take effect immediately without the need to reboot or restart the application, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81141

The Central Log Server must be configured to allow selection, capture, and view of all events related to a user session, host, or device when required by authorized users.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000354-AU-000080
Rule ID
SV-95855r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000354-AU-000080
CCI
CCI-001919
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the system is not configured to select a user session to capture and view or produce a report, investigations into suspicious or harmful events would be hampered by the volume of information captured. The volume of information captured may also adversely impact the operation for the network. This only includes auditable events. The Central Log Server (i.e., SIEM, syslog server) should be able to correlate across multiple devices and hosts within its span of control to provide an aggregated view of the single user's activity.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to allow selection, capture, and view of all events related to a user session, host, or device when required by authorized users.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to allow selection, capture, and view of all events related to a user session, host, or device when required by authorized users. If the Central Log Server is not configured to allow selection, capture, and view of all events related to a user session, host, or device when required by authorized users, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81143

The Central Log Server must be configured for centralized management of the events repository for the purposes of configuration, analysis, and reporting.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000356-AU-000090
Rule ID
SV-95857r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000356-AU-000090
CCI
CCI-001844
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application is not configured to centrally manage the content captured in the log records, identification, troubleshooting, and correlation of suspicious behavior would be difficult and could lead to a delayed or incomplete analysis of an ongoing attack. The content captured in log records must be managed from a central location (necessitating automation). Centralized management of log records and logs provides for efficiency in maintenance and management of records, as well as the backup and archiving of those records. Application components requiring centralized audit log management must be configured to support centralized management.

Fix Text

Configure access for management tools used by administrators at management workstations, particularly those used for remote access. This often uses user access profiles or remote access configuration to enable secure and authorized access to the Central Log Server. Enable management from one or more management workstations or a secure browser. Verify remote communications from the management station using a secure, approved version of the protocol (e.g., TLS). Limit access based on user role, location, or remote device wherever possible.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify that centralized management of the events repository is enabled and configured for all hosts and devices within the scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not enabled to allow centralized management of the events repository for the purposes of configuration, analysis, and reporting, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81145

The Central Log Server must be configured to off-load log records onto a different system or media than the system being audited.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000358-AU-000100
Rule ID
SV-95859r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000358-AU-000100
CCI
CCI-001851
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity. Although this may be part of the operating system function, for the enterprise events management system, this is most often a function managed through the application since it is a critical function and requires the use of a large amount of external storage.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to off-load log records onto a different system or media than the system being audited.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if an external application or operating system manages this function. Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to off-load log records onto a different system or media than the system being audited. If the Central Log Server is not configured to off-load log records onto a different system or media than the system being audited, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81147

The Central Log Server must be configured to send an immediate alert to the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) (at a minimum) when allocated log record storage volume reaches 75 percent of the repository maximum log record storage capacity.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000359-AU-000120
Rule ID
SV-95861r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000359-AU-000120
CCI
CCI-001855
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If security personnel are not notified immediately upon storage volume utilization reaching 75 percent, they are unable to plan for storage capacity expansion. Although this may be part of the operating system function, for the enterprise events management system, this is most often a function managed through the application since it is a critical function and requires the use of a large amount of external storage.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to send an immediate alert to the SA, ISSO, and other authorized personnel when allocated log record storage volume reaches 75 percent of repository maximum log record storage capacity.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if an external application or operating system manages this function. Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to send an immediate warning to the SA and ISSO (at a minimum) when allocated log record storage volume reaches 75 percent of the repository's maximum log record storage capacity. If the Central Log Server is not configured to send an immediate alert to the SA and ISSO (at a minimum) when allocated log record storage volume reaches 75 percent of repository maximum log record storage capacity, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81149

For the host and devices within its scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must be configured to send a real-time alert to the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO) (at a minimum) of all audit failure events, such as loss of communications with hosts and devices, or if log records are no longer being received.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000360-AU-000130
Rule ID
SV-95863r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000360-AU-000130
CCI
CCI-001858
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit function and application operation may be adversely affected. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less). User-configurable controls on the Central Log Server help avoid generating excessive numbers of alert messages. Define realistic alerting limits and thresholds to avoid creating excessive numbers of alerts for noncritical events. This requirement must be mapped to the severity levels used by the system to denote a failure, active attack, attack involving multiple systems, and other critical notifications, at a minimum. However, note that the IDS/IDPS and other monitoring systems may already be configured for direct notification of many types of critical security alerts.

Fix Text

For the host and devices within its scope of coverage, configure the Central Log Server to send an immediate real-time alert to the SA and ISSO, at a minimum, of all audit failure events such as loss of communications with hosts and devices, or if log records are no longer being received.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to send an alert to the SA and ISSO, within seconds or less, when communication is lost with any host or device within the scope of coverage that may indicate an audit failure. Verify the system is configured to send an alert if hosts and devices stop sending log records to the Central Log Server. If the Central Log Server is not configured to send a real-time alert to the SA and ISSO (at a minimum) of all audit failure events, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81151

The Central Log Server must be configured to send an immediate alert to the System Administrator (SA) or Information System Security Officer (ISSO) if communication with the host and devices within its scope of coverage is lost.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000361-AU-000140
Rule ID
SV-95865r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000361-AU-000140
CCI
CCI-001861
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the system were to continue processing after audit failure, actions could be taken on the system that could not be tracked and recorded for later forensic analysis. To perform this function, some type of heartbeat configuration with all of the devices and hosts must be configured. Because of the importance of ensuring mission/business continuity, organizations may determine that the nature of the audit failure is not so severe that it warrants a complete shutdown of the application supporting the core organizational missions/business operations. In those instances, partial application shutdowns or operating in a degraded mode may be viable alternatives. This requirement applies to each audit data storage repository (i.e., distinct information system component where log records are stored), the centralized audit storage capacity of organizations (i.e., all audit data storage repositories combined), or both.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to send an immediate alert to the SA or ISSO if communication with the host and devices within its scope of coverage is lost.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to send an immediate alert to the SA or ISSO if communication with the host and devices within its scope of coverage is lost. If the Central Log Server is not configured to send an immediate alert to the SA or ISSO if communication with the host and devices within its scope of coverage is lost, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81153

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform on-demand sorting of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000362-AU-000170
Rule ID
SV-95867r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000362-AU-000170
CCI
CCI-001886
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to sort the log records to better view events of interest provides the persons reviewing the logs with the ability to quickly isolate and identify these events without having to review entries that are of little or no consequence to the investigation. Without this capability, forensic investigations are impeded. This requires applications to be configured to sort log record reports based on organization-defined criteria.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform on-demand sorting of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to perform on-demand sorting of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform on-demand sorting of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81155

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform on-demand searches of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000363-AU-000180
Rule ID
SV-95869r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000363-AU-000180
CCI
CCI-001887
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to search the log records to better view events of interest provides the persons reviewing the logs with the ability to quickly isolate and identify these events without having to review entries that are of little or no consequence to the investigation. Without this capability, forensic investigations are impeded. This requires applications to provide the capability to search log record reports based on organization-defined criteria.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform on-demand searches of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server performs on-demand searches of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform on-demand searches of log records for events of interest based on the content of organization-defined audit fields within log records, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81157

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand audit review and analysis.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000364-AU-000190
Rule ID
SV-95871r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000364-AU-000190
CCI
CCI-001875
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The ability to perform on-demand audit review and analysis, including after the audit data has been subjected to audit reduction, greatly facilitates the organization's ability to generate incident reports as needed to better handle larger-scale or more complex security incidents. Audit reduction is a technique used to reduce the volume of log records to facilitate a manual review. Audit reduction does not alter original log records. The report generation capability provided by the application must support on-demand (i.e., customizable, ad hoc, and as-needed) reports. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand audit review and analysis.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the system performs audit reduction that supports on-demand audit review and analysis. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform audit reduction that supports on-demand audit review and analysis, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81159

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform audit reduction that supports after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000365-AU-000210
Rule ID
SV-95873r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000365-AU-000210
CCI
CCI-001877
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the audit reduction capability does not support after-the-fact investigations, it is difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack or identify those responses for one. This capability is also required to comply with applicable Federal laws and DoD policies. Audit reduction capability must support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents either natively or through the use of third-party tools. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform audit reduction that supports after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server performs audit reduction that supports after-the-fact investigations of security incidents. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform audit reduction that supports after-the-fact investigations of security incidents, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81161

The Central Log Server must be configured to generate on-demand audit review and analysis reports.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000366-AU-000220
Rule ID
SV-95875r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000366-AU-000220
CCI
CCI-001878
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The report generation capability must support on-demand review and analysis to facilitate the organization's ability to generate incident reports as needed to better handle larger-scale or more complex security incidents. Report generation must be capable of generating on-demand (i.e., customizable, ad hoc, and as-needed) reports. On-demand reporting allows personnel to report issues more rapidly to more effectively meet reporting requirements. Collecting log data and aggregating it to present the data in a single, consolidated report achieves this objective. Audit reduction and report generation capabilities do not always reside on the same information system or within the same organizational entities conducting auditing activities. The audit reduction capability can include, for example, modern data mining techniques with advanced data filters to identify anomalous behavior in log records. The report generation capability provided by the information system can generate customizable reports. Time ordering of log records can be a significant issue if the granularity of the timestamp in the record is insufficient. This requirement is specific to applications with report generation capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to generate on-demand audit review and analysis reports.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server generates on-demand audit review and analysis reports. If the Central Log Server is not configured to generate on-demand audit review and analysis reports, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81163

The Central Log Server must be configured to generate reports that support on-demand reporting requirements.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000367-AU-000230
Rule ID
SV-95877r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000367-AU-000230
CCI
CCI-001879
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The report generation capability must support on-demand reporting to facilitate the organization's ability to generate incident reports as needed to better handle larger-scale or more complex security incidents The report generation capability provided by the application must be capable of generating on-demand (i.e., customizable, ad hoc, and as-needed) reports. On-demand reporting allows personnel to report issues more rapidly to more effectively meet reporting requirements. Collecting log data and aggregating it to present the data in a single, consolidated report achieves this objective. This requirement is specific to applications with report generation capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand reporting requirements.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to generate reports that support on-demand reporting requirements.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server generates reports that support on-demand reporting requirements. If the Central Log Server is not configured to generate reports that support on-demand reporting requirements, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81165

The Central Log Server must be configured to generate reports that support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000368-AU-000240
Rule ID
SV-95879r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000368-AU-000240
CCI
CCI-001880
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the report generation capability does not support after-the-fact investigations, it is difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack or identify those responses for one. This capability is also required to comply with applicable Federal laws and DoD policies. The report generation capability must support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents either natively or through the use of third-party tools. This requirement is specific to applications with report generation capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand reporting requirements.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to generate reports that support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server generates reports that support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents. If the Central Log Server is not configured to generate reports that support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81167

The Central Log Server must be configured to perform audit reduction that does not alter original content or time ordering of log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000369-AU-000250
Rule ID
SV-95881r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000369-AU-000250
CCI
CCI-001881
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the audit reduction capability alters the content or time ordering of log records, the integrity of the log records is compromised, and the records are no longer usable for forensic analysis. Time ordering refers to the chronological organization of records based on time stamps. The degree of time stamp precision can affect this. Audit reduction is a process that manipulates collected audit information and organizes such information in a summary format that is more meaningful to analysts. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to perform audit reduction that does not alter original content or time ordering of log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server performs audit reduction that does not alter original content or time ordering of log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to perform audit reduction that does not alter original content or time ordering of log records, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81169

The Central Log Server must be configured to generate reports that do not alter original content or time ordering of log records.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000370-AU-000260
Rule ID
SV-95883r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000370-AU-000260
CCI
CCI-001882
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the audit report generation capability alters the original content or time ordering of log records, the integrity of the log records is compromised, and the records are no longer usable for forensic analysis. Time ordering refers to the chronological organization of records based on time stamps. The degree of time stamp precision can affect this. The report generation capability provided by the application can generate customizable reports. This requirement is specific to applications with audit reduction capabilities; however, applications need to support on-demand audit review and analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to generate reports that do not alter original content or time ordering of log records.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server generates reports that do not alter original content or time ordering of log records. If the Central Log Server is not configured to generate reports that do not alter original content or time ordering of log records, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81171

Upon receipt of the log record from hosts and devices, the Central Log Server must be configured to record time stamps of the time of receipt that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000374-AU-000290
Rule ID
SV-95885r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000374-AU-000290
CCI
CCI-001890
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in UTC, a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), or local time with an offset from UTC.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to record time stamps of the time the record was received from the host or device. Verify the time stamp is mapped to UTC.

Check Content

Examine the log records stored on the events server. Verify the Central Log Server records time stamps of the time the record was received from the host or device. Verify the time stamp is mapped to UTC. If the Central Log Server is not configured to record time stamps of the time the record was received or the time stamp is not mapped to UTC, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81173

The Central Log Server must be configured to record time stamps for when log records are received by the log server that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000375-AU-000280
Rule ID
SV-95887r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000375-AU-000280
CCI
CCI-001889
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without sufficient granularity of time stamps, it is not possible to adequately determine the chronological order of records. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Granularity of time measurements refers to the degree of synchronization between information system clocks and reference clocks. Note: The actual configuring and security requirements for NTP is handled in the host OS or NDM STIGs that are also required as part of a Central Log Server review.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to record time stamps for when log records are received by the log server that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server records time stamps for when log records are received by the log server that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision. If the Central Log Server is not configured to record time stamps for when log records are received by the log server that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81175

The Central Log Server must be configured to audit the enforcement actions used to prevent access to modules or functions that can change the account access levels.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000381-AU-000320
Rule ID
SV-95889r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000381-AU-000320
CCI
CCI-001814
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without auditing the enforcement of access restrictions against changes to the application configuration, it will be difficult to identify attempted attacks, and an audit trail will not be available for forensic investigation for after-the-fact actions. Enforcement actions are the methods or mechanisms used to prevent unauthorized changes to configuration settings. Enforcement action methods may be as simple as denying access to a file based on the application of file permissions (access restriction). Audit items may consist of lists of actions blocked by access restrictions or changes identified after the fact.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to audit the enforcement actions used to prevent access to modules or functions that can change the account access levels.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server audits the enforcement actions used to prevent access to modules or functions that can change the account access levels. If the Central Log Server is not configured to audit the enforcement actions used to prevent access to modules or functions that can change the account access levels, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81177

The Central Log Server must be configured to off-load interconnected systems in real time and off-load standalone systems weekly, at a minimum.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000515-AU-000110
Rule ID
SV-95891r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000515-AU-000110
CCI
CCI-001851
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity. Although this may be part of the operating system function, for the enterprise events management system, this is most often a function managed through the application since it is a critical function and requires the use of a large amount of external storage.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to off-load interconnected systems in real time and off-load standalone systems weekly, at a minimum.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if an external application or operating system manages this function. Examine the configuration. Verify the system is configured to off-load interconnected systems in real time and off-load standalone systems weekly, at a minimum. If the Central Log Server is not configured to off-load interconnected systems in real time and off-load standalone systems weekly, at a minimum, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81179

The Central Log Server must be configured to retain the identity of the original source host or device where the event occurred as part of the log record.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000330
Rule ID
SV-95893r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000330
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In this case the information producer is the device based on IP address or some other identifier of the device producing the information. The source of the record must be bound to the record using cryptographic means. Some events servers allow the administrator to retain only portions of the record sent by devices and hosts. This requirement applies to log aggregation servers with the role of fulfilling the DoD requirement for a central log repository. The syslog, SIEM, or other event servers must retain this information with each log record to support incident investigations.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to include the identity of the original source host or device as part of each aggregated log record.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to include the identity of the original source host or device where the event occurred as part of each aggregated log record. If the Central Log Server is not configured to include the identity of the original source host or device where the event occurred as part of the aggregated log record, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81181

The Central Log Server that aggregates log records from hosts and devices must be configured to use TCP for transmission to guarantee delivery.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000340
Rule ID
SV-95895r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000340
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the default UDP protocol is used for communication between the hosts and devices to the Central Log Server, then log records that do not reach the log server are not detected as a data loss. The use of TCP to transport log records to the log servers guarantees delivery and gives the option to encrypt the traffic if the log server communication is not protected using a management network (preferred) or VPN based on mission requirements.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server that aggregates log records from hosts and devices to use TCP for transmission to guarantee delivery.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to use TCP to guarantee delivery. If the Central Log Server is not configured to use TCP to guarantee delivery, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81183

The Central Log Server must be configured to notify the System Administrator (SA) and Information System Security Officer (ISSO), at a minimum, when an attack is detected on multiple devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000350
Rule ID
SV-95897r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000350
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Notification may be configured to be sent by the device, SNMP server, or Central Log Server. The best practice is for these notifications to be sent by a robust events management server. This is a function provided by most enterprise-level SIEMs. If the Central Log Server does not provide this function, it must forward the log records to a log server that does.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to notify the SA and ISSO, at a minimum, when an attack is detected on multiple devices and hosts within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if the Central Log Server (e.g., syslog, SIEM) does not perform analysis. This is NA if notifications are performed by another device. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to notify the SA and ISSO, at a minimum, when an attack is detected on multiple devices and hosts within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not configured to notify the SA and ISSO, at a minimum, when an attack is detected on multiple devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81185

The Central Log Server must be configured to automatically create trouble tickets for organization-defined threats and events of interest as they are detected in real time (within seconds).

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000360
Rule ID
SV-95899r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000360
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

In most Central Log Server products today, log review (threat detection), can be automated by creating correlation content matching the organizational-defined Events of Interest (e.g., account change actions, privilege command use, and other AU and AC family controls) to automatically notify or automatically create trouble tickets for threats as they are detected in real time. Auditors have repeatedly expressed a strong preference for automated ticketing. They are also more likely to follow up on the threat and action items needed to address the detected issues if the ticketing process is automated. This is a function provided by most enterprise-level SIEMs. If the Central Log Server does not provide this function, it must forward the log records to a log server that does.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to automatically create trouble tickets for organization-defined threats and events of interest as they are detected in real time (within seconds).

Check Content

Note: This is not applicable (NA) if the Central Log Server (e.g., syslog) does not perform analysis. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server automatically creates trouble tickets for organization-defined threats and events of interest as they are detected in real time (within seconds). If the Central Log Server is not configured to automatically create trouble tickets for organization-defined threats and events of interest as they are detected in real time (within seconds), this is a finding.

Removed

V-81187

For devices and hosts within the scope of coverage, the Central Log Server must be configured to automatically aggregate events that indicate account actions.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000370
Rule ID
SV-95901r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000370
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the Central Log Server is configured to filter or remove account log records transmitted by devices and hosts within its scope of coverage, forensic analysis tools will be less effective at detecting and reporting on important attack vectors. A comprehensive account management process must include capturing log records for the creation of user accounts and notification of administrators and/or application owners. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. This requirement addresses the concern that the Central Log Server may be configured to filter out certain levels of information, which may result in the discarding of DoD-required accounting actions addressed in the AC-2 (4) controls such as creation, modification, deletion, and removal of privileged accounts.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to automatically aggregate events that indicate account actions for each device and host within its scope of coverage.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server automatically aggregates events that indicate account actions for each device and host within its scope of coverage. If the Central Log Server is not configured to automatically aggregate events that indicate account actions for each device and host within its scope of coverage, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81189

The Central Log Server must be configured with the organization-defined severity or criticality levels of each event that is being sent from individual devices or hosts.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000380
Rule ID
SV-95903r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000380
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

This supports prioritization functions, which is a major reason why centralized management is a requirement in DoD. This includes different features that help highlight the important events over less critical security events. This may be accomplished by correlating security events with vulnerability data or other asset information. Prioritization algorithms often use severity information provided by the original log source as well.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server with the organization-defined severity or criticality levels of each event that is being sent from individual devices or hosts.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured with the organization-defined severity or criticality levels of each event that is being sent from individual devices or hosts. If the Central Log Server is not configured with the organization-defined severity or criticality levels of each event that is being sent from individual devices or hosts, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81191

Analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications used as part of the Central Log Server must be configured to comply with DoD-trusted path and access requirements.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000410
Rule ID
SV-95905r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000516-AU-000410
CCI
CCI-000366
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications, such as analysis tools and other vendor-provided applications, must be secured. Software used to perform additional functions, which resides on the server, must also be secured or could provide a vector for unauthorized access to the events repository.

Fix Text

Configure all analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications used with the Central Log Server to comply with DoD-trusted path and access requirements.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications used with the Central Log Server are configured to comply with DoD-trusted path and access requirements. If analysis, viewing, and indexing functions, services, and applications used with the Central Log Server are not configured to comply with DoD-trusted path and access requirements, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81281

The Central Log Server must be configured to uniquely identify and authenticate organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of organizational users).

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000148-AU-002270
Rule ID
SV-95995r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000148-AU-002270
CCI
CCI-000764
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, organizational users must be identified and authenticated to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Organizational users include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors). Organizational users (and any processes acting on behalf of users) must be uniquely identified and authenticated for all accesses.

Fix Text

For systems where individual users access, configure and/or manage the system, configure the Central Log Server application so each user is explicitly identified and authenticated. While an authentication server, is often used for logon, this requirement must include instructions for integrating the authentication server so that they system requires unique identification and authentication. Note: Group accounts are not permitted for logon to the Central Log Server.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify that individual user accounts are defined within the application. Each account must have a separate identifier. If an authentication server may be used for login, ensure the application audit logs containing management and configuration actions, identify the individual performing each action. If the Central Log Server is not configured to uniquely identify and authenticate organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of organizational users), this is a finding.

Removed

V-81283

For accounts using password authentication, the Central Log Server must be configured to store only cryptographic representations of passwords.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000171-AU-002540
Rule ID
SV-95997r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000171-AU-002540
CCI
CCI-000196
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read and easily compromised. Use of passwords for authentication is intended only for limited situations and should not be used as a replacement for two-factor CAC-enabled authentication. Examples of situations where a user ID and password might be used include: - When the user does not use a CAC and is not a current DoD employee, member of the military, or DoD contractor. - When a user has been officially designated as temporarily unable to present a CAC for some reason (lost, damaged, not yet issued, broken card reader) (i.e., Temporary Exception User) and to satisfy urgent organizational needs must be temporarily permitted to use user ID/password authentication until the problem with CAC use has been remedied. - When the application is publicly available and or hosting publicly releasable data requiring some degree of need-to-know protection. If the password is already encrypted and not a plaintext password, this meets this requirement. Implementation of this requirement requires configuration of a FIPS-approved cipher block algorithm and block cipher modes for encryption. This method uses a one-way hashing encryption algorithm with a salt value to validate a user's password without having to store the actual password. Performance and time required to access are factors that must be considered, and the one-way hash is the most feasible means of securing the password and providing an acceptable measure of password security. Verifying the user knows a password is performed using a password verifier. In its simplest form, a password verifier is a computational function that is capable of creating a hash of a password and determining if the value provided by the user matches the hash. A more secure version of verifying a user knowing a password is to store the result of an iterating hash function and a large random salt value as follows: H0 = H(pwd, H(salt)) Hn = H(Hn-1,H(salt)) In the above, "n" is a cryptographically-strong random [*3] number. "Hn" is stored along with the salt. When the application wishes to verify that the user knows a password, it simply repeats the process and compares "Hn" with the stored "Hn". A salt is essentially a fixed-length cryptographically strong random value. Another method is using a keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC). HMAC calculates a message authentication code via a cryptographic hash function used in conjunction with an encryption key. The key must be protected as with any private key.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to store only cryptographic representations of passwords.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to store only cryptographic representations of passwords. If the Central Log Server is not configured to store only cryptographic representations of passwords, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81285

For accounts using password authentication, the Central Log Server must use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or later protocol to protect the integrity of the password authentication process.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000172-AU-002550
Rule ID
SV-95999r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000172-AU-002550
CCI
CCI-000197
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. The information system must specify the hash algorithm used for authenticating passwords. Implementation of this requirement requires configuration of FIPS-approved cipher block algorithm and block cipher modes for encryption. This requirement applies to all accounts, including authentication server; Authorization, Authentication, and Accounting (AAA); and local accounts such as the root account and the account of last resort. This requirement only applies to components where this is specific to the function of the device (e.g., TLS VPN or ALG). This does not apply to authentication for the purpose of configuring the device itself (management).

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or later protocol to protect the integrity of the password authentication process.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or later protocol to protect the integrity of the password authentication process. If the Central Log Server is not configured to use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or later protocol to protect the integrity of the password authentication process, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81287

The Central Log Server, when utilizing PKI-based authentication, must validate certificates by constructing a certification path (which includes status information) to an accepted trust anchor.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000175-AU-002630
Rule ID
SV-96001r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000175-AU-002630
CCI
CCI-000185
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without path validation, an informed trust decision by the relying party cannot be made when presented with any certificate not already explicitly trusted. A trust anchor is an authoritative entity represented via a public key and associated data. It is used in the context of public key infrastructures, X.509 digital certificates, and DNSSEC. When there is a chain of trust, usually the top entity to be trusted becomes the trust anchor; it can be, for example, a Certification Authority (CA). A certification path starts with the subject certificate and proceeds through a number of intermediate certificates up to a trusted root certificate, typically issued by a trusted CA. This requirement verifies that a certification path to an accepted trust anchor is used to for certificate validation and that the path includes status information. Path validation is necessary for a relying party to make an informed trust decision when presented with any certificate not already explicitly trusted. Status information for certification paths includes certificate revocation lists or online certificate status protocol responses. Validation of the certificate status information is out of scope for this requirement.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to validate certificates by constructing a certification path (which includes status information) to an accepted trust anchor.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to validate certificates by constructing a certification path (which includes status information) to an accepted trust anchor. If the Central Log Server is not configured to validate certificates by constructing a certification path (which includes status information) to an accepted trust anchor, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81289

The Central Log Server, when using PKI-based authentication, must enforce authorized access to the corresponding private key.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000176-AU-002640
Rule ID
SV-96003r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000176-AU-002640
CCI
CCI-000186
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the private key is discovered, an attacker can use the key to authenticate as an authorized user and gain access to the network infrastructure. The cornerstone of the PKI is the private key used to encrypt or digitally sign information. If the private key is stolen, this will lead to the compromise of the authentication and non-repudiation gained through PKI because the attacker can use the private key to digitally sign documents and pretend to be the authorized user. Both the holders of a digital certificate and the issuing authority must protect the computers, storage devices, or whatever they use to keep the private keys.

Fix Text

If using PKI-based authentication, configure the Central Log Server to enforce authorized access to the corresponding private key.

Check Content

If not using PKI-based authentication this is NA. Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to enforce authorized access to the corresponding private key when using PKI-based authentication. If the Central Log Server is not configured to enforce authorized access to the corresponding private key when using PKI-based authentication, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81291

The Central Log Server must obfuscate authentication information during the authentication process so that the authentication is not visible.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000178-AU-002660
Rule ID
SV-96005r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000178-AU-002660
CCI
CCI-000206
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

To prevent the compromise of authentication information such as passwords during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system must not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism. Obfuscation of user-provided information when typed into the system is a method used in addressing this risk. For example, displaying asterisks when a user types in a password is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to obfuscate authentication information during the authentication process so that the authentication is not visible to protect the information from possible exploitation/use by unauthorized individuals.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to obfuscate authentication information during the authentication process so that the authentication is not visible. If the Central Log Server is not configured to obfuscate authentication information during the authentication process so that the authentication is not visible, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81295

The Central Log Server must use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or higher hash function to protect the integrity of keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC), Key Derivation Functions (KDFs), Random Bit Generation, hash-only applications, and digital signature verification (legacy use only).

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000179-AU-002670
Rule ID
SV-96009r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000179-AU-002670
CCI
CCI-000803
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without cryptographic integrity protections, information can be altered by unauthorized users without detection. To protect the integrity of the authenticator and authentication mechanism used for the cryptographic module used by the Central Log Server must be configured to use one of the following hash functions for hashing the password or other authenticator in accordance with SP 800-131Ar1: SHA-1, SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512, SHA-512/224, SHA-512/256, SHA3-224, SHA3-256, SHA3-384, and SHA3-512. Applications also include HMAC, KDFs, Random Bit Generation, and hash-only applications (e.g., hashing passwords and using SHA-1 or higher to compute a checksum). For digital signature verification, SP800-131Ar1 allows SHA-1 for legacy use where needed.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or higher hash function to protect the integrity of keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC), Key Derivation Functions (KDFs), Random Bit Generation, hash-only applications, and digital signature verification (legacy use only).

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or higher hash function to protect the integrity of keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC), Key Derivation Functions (KDFs), Random Bit Generation, hash-only applications, and digital signature verification (legacy use only). If the Central Log Server is not configured to use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or higher hash function to protect the integrity of keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC), Key Derivation Functions (KDFs), Random Bit Generation, hash-only applications, and digital signature verification (legacy use only), this is a finding.

Removed

V-81297

The Central Log Server must be configured to enforce approved authorizations for logical access to information and system resources in accordance with applicable access control policies.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000033-AU-001610
Rule ID
SV-96011r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000033-AU-001610
CCI
CCI-000213
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

To mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive information by entities that have been issued certificates by DoD-approved PKIs, all DoD systems (e.g., networks, web servers, and web portals) must be properly configured to incorporate access control methods that do not rely solely on the possession of a certificate for access. Successful authentication must not automatically give an entity access to an asset or security boundary. Authorization procedures and controls must be implemented to ensure each authenticated entity also has a validated and current authorization. Authorization is the process of determining whether an entity, once authenticated, is permitted to access a specific asset. Information systems use access control policies and enforcement mechanisms to implement this requirement. Access control policies include identity-based policies, role-based policies, and attribute-based policies. Access enforcement mechanisms include access control lists, access control matrices, and cryptography. These policies and mechanisms must be employed by the application to control access between users (or processes acting on behalf of users) and objects (e.g., devices, files, records, processes, programs, and domains) in the information system. This requirement is applicable to access control enforcement applications (e.g., authentication servers) and other applications that perform information and system access control functions.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server with granular permissions to separate and control access levels of accounts used to access the application.

Check Content

Verify the Central Log Server user accounts are configured for granular permissions to separate and control access levels of accounts used to access the application. Users should not have access permissions that are not relevant to their role. If the Central Log Server is not configured to enforce approved authorizations for logical access to information and system resources in accordance with applicable access control policies, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81301

The Central Log Server must be configured to protect the confidentiality and integrity of transmitted information.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000439-AU-004310
Rule ID
SV-96015r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000439-AU-004310
CCI
CCI-002418
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without protection of the transmitted information, confidentiality and integrity may be compromised since unprotected communications can be intercepted and either read or altered. This requirement applies only to those applications that are either distributed or can allow access to data non-locally. Use of this requirement will be limited to situations where the data owner has a strict requirement for ensuring data integrity and confidentiality is maintained at every step of the data transfer and handling process. When transmitting data, applications need to leverage transmission protection mechanisms, such as TLS, SSL VPNs, or IPSEC. Communication paths outside the physical protection of a controlled boundary are exposed to the possibility of interception and modification. Protecting the confidentiality and integrity of organizational information can be accomplished by physical means (e.g., employing physical distribution systems) or by logical means (e.g., employing cryptographic techniques). If physical means of protection are employed, then logical means (cryptography) do not have to be employed, and vice versa.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to use transmission protection mechanisms, such as TLS, SSL VPNs, or IPsec along with integrity protections such as FIPS 140-2 validated digital signature and hash function.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to use transmission protection mechanisms, such as TLS, SSL VPNs, or IPsec along with integrity protections such as FIPS 140-2 validated digital signature and hash function. If the Central Log Server is not configured to protect the confidentiality and integrity of transmitted information, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81303

The Central Log Server must implement NIST FIPS-validated cryptography for the following: to provision digital signatures; to generate cryptographic hashes; and/or to protect unclassified information requiring confidentiality and cryptographic protection.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000514-AU-002890
Rule ID
SV-96017r1_rule
Severity
Cat I
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000514-AU-002890
CCI
CCI-002450
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

FIPS 140-2 precludes the use of unvalidated cryptography for the cryptographic protection of sensitive or valuable data within Federal systems. Unvalidated cryptography is viewed by NIST as providing no protection to the information or data. In effect, the data would be considered unprotected plaintext. If the agency specifies that the information or data be cryptographically protected, then FIPS 140-2 is applicable. In essence, if cryptography is required, it must be validated. Cryptographic modules that have been approved for classified use may be used in lieu of modules that have been validated against the FIPS 140-2 standard.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to implement NIST FIPS-validated cryptography for the following: to provision digital signatures; to generate cryptographic hashes; and/or to protect unclassified information requiring confidentiality and cryptographic protection in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and standards.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to implement NIST FIPS-validated cryptography for the following: to provision digital signatures; to generate cryptographic hashes; and/or to protect unclassified information requiring confidentiality and cryptographic protection in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and standards. If the Central Log Server is not configured to implement NIST FIPS-validated cryptography for the following: to provision digital signatures; to generate cryptographic hashes; and/or to protect unclassified information requiring confidentiality and cryptographic protection in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and standards, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81307

The Central Log Server must use multifactor authentication for network access to privileged user accounts.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000149-AU-002280
Rule ID
SV-96021r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000149-AU-002280
CCI
CCI-000765
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without the use of multifactor authentication, the ease of access to privileged functions is greatly increased. Multifactor authentication requires using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN); (ii) something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) something a user is (e.g., biometric). A privileged account is defined as an information system account with authorizations of a privileged user. Network access is defined as access to an information system by a user (or a process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a network (e.g., local area network, wide area network, or the Internet).

Fix Text

This requirement applies to all privileged accounts used for access to the system via network access. For systems where individual users access, configure and/or manage the system, configure the Central Log server application to use DoD PKI (preferred) or another multifactor authentication solution for network access to logon to the Central Log Server. If the account of last resort is used for logon via the network (not recommended), then configure the account to require multifactor authentication method.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to require DoD PKI or another multifactor authentication method for logon via the network for all privileged accounts. If the account of last resort is used for logon via the network (not recommended), then verify it is configured to require multifactor authentication method. If the Central Log Server is not configured to use multifactor authentication for network access to privileged user accounts, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81309

The Central Log Server must use multifactor authentication for network access to non-privileged user accounts.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000150-AU-002320
Rule ID
SV-96023r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000150-AU-002320
CCI
CCI-000766
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, non-privileged users must utilize multifactor authentication to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Multifactor authentication uses two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) Something you know (e.g., password/PIN); (ii) Something you have (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) Something you are (e.g., biometric). A non-privileged account is any information system account with authorizations of a non-privileged user. Network access is any access to an application by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) where said access is obtained through a network connection. Applications integrating with the DoD Active Directory and utilize the DoD CAC are examples of compliant multifactor authentication solutions.

Fix Text

This requirement applies to all non-privileged accounts used for access to the system via network access. For systems where individual users access, configure and/or manage the system, configure the Central Log Server to use DoD PKI (preferred) or another multifactor authentication solution for network access to logon to the Central Log Server.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to require DoD PKI or another multifactor authentication method for logon via the network for all non-privileged accounts. If the Central Log Server is not configured to use multifactor authentication for network access to non-privileged user accounts, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81313

The Central Log Server must use multifactor authentication for local access using privileged user accounts.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000151-AU-002330
Rule ID
SV-96027r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000151-AU-002330
CCI
CCI-000767
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, privileged users must utilize multifactor authentication to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Multifactor authentication is defined as: using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) Something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN); (ii) Something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) Something a user is (e.g., biometric). A privileged account is defined as an information system account with authorizations of a privileged user. Local access is defined as access to an organizational information system by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a direct connection without the use of a network. Applications integrating with the DoD Active Directory and utilize the DoD CAC are examples of compliant multifactor authentication solutions.

Fix Text

This requirement applies to all privileged user accounts used for local logon to the application. For systems where individual users access, configure and/or manage the system, configure the Central Log Server to use DoD PKI (preferred) or another multifactor authentication solution for local logon to the Central Log Server.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to require DoD PKI or another multifactor authentication method for local logon. If the Central Log Server is not configured to use multifactor authentication for local access using privileged accounts, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81315

The Central Log Server must be configured to use multifactor authentication for network access to privileged accounts such that one of the factors is provided by a device separate from the system gaining access.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000154-AU-002360
Rule ID
SV-96029r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000154-AU-002360
CCI
CCI-001936
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Using an authentication device, such as a CAC or token that is separate from the information system, ensures that even if the information system is compromised, that compromise will not affect credentials stored on the authentication device. Multifactor solutions that require devices separate from information systems gaining access include, for example, hardware tokens providing time-based or challenge-response authenticators and smart cards, such as the U.S. Government Personal Identity Verification card and the DoD common access card. A privileged account is any information system account with authorizations of a privileged user. Network access is any access to an application by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) where said access is obtained through a network connection.

Fix Text

This requirement applies to all privileged user accounts used for network logon to the application. Configure the Central Log Server to use DoD PKI or another form of multifactor authentication for network access to privileged accounts such that one of the factors is provided by a device separate from the system gaining access.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to use DoD PKI or another form of multifactor authentication for network access to privileged accounts such that one of the factors is provided by a device separate from the system gaining access. If the Central Log Server is not configured to use multifactor authentication for network access to privileged accounts such that one of the factors is provided by a device separate from the system gaining access, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81317

The Central Log Server must use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or higher hash function to provide replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000156-AU-002380
Rule ID
SV-96031r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000156-AU-002380
CCI
CCI-001941
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

A replay attack may enable an unauthorized user to gain access to the application. Authentication sessions between the authenticator and the application validating the user credentials must not be vulnerable to a replay attack. Anti-replay is a cryptographically based mechanism; thus, it must use FIPS-approved algorithms. An authentication process resists replay attacks if it is impractical to achieve a successful authentication by recording and replaying a previous authentication message. Note that the anti-replay service is implicit when data contains monotonically increasing sequence numbers and data integrity is assured. Use of DoD PKI is inherently compliant with this requirement for user and device access. Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS), including application protocols, such as HTTPS and DNSSEC, that use TLS/SSL as the underlying security protocol is also complaint. Configure the information system to use the hash message authentication code (HMAC) algorithm for authentication services to Kerberos, SSH, web management tool, and any other access method.

Fix Text

This requirement applies to all privileged user accounts used for network logon to the application. Configure the Central Log Server to use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or higher hash function to provide replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or higher hash function to provide replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts. If the Central Log Server does not use FIPS-validated SHA-1 or higher hash function to provide replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81319

The Central Log Server must disable accounts (individuals, groups, roles, and devices) after 35 days of inactivity.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000163-AU-002470
Rule ID
SV-96033r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000163-AU-002470
CCI
CCI-000795
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Inactive identifiers pose a risk to systems and applications. Attackers that are able to exploit an inactive identifier can potentially obtain and maintain undetected access to the application. Owners of inactive accounts will not notice if unauthorized access to their user account has been obtained. Applications need to track periods of inactivity and disable application identifiers after 35 days of inactivity. Management of user identifiers is not applicable to shared information system accounts (e.g., guest and anonymous accounts). It is commonly the case that a user account is the name of an information system account associated with an individual. To avoid having to build complex user management capabilities directly into their application, wise developers leverage the underlying OS or other user account management infrastructure (AD, LDAP) that is already in place within the organization and meets organizational user account management requirements.

Fix Text

For local accounts (except for the account of last resort), configure the Central Log Server to disable accounts (individuals, groups, roles, and devices) after 35 days of inactivity.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to disable accounts (individuals, groups, roles, and devices) after 35 days of inactivity. If the Central Log Server does not disable accounts (individuals, groups, roles, and devices) after 35 days of inactivity, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81321

The Central Log Server must be configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000164-AU-002480
Rule ID
SV-96035r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000164-AU-002480
CCI
CCI-000205
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to enforce a minimum 15-character password length.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length. If the Central Log Server is not configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81323

The Central Log Server must be configured to accept the DoD CAC credential to support identity management and personal authentication.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000391-AU-002290
Rule ID
SV-96037r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000391-AU-002290
CCI
CCI-001953
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The use of PIV credentials facilitates standardization and reduces the risk of unauthorized access. DoD has mandated the use of the CAC to support identity management and personal authentication for systems covered under HSPD 12, as well as a primary component of layered protection for national security systems. If the application cannot meet this requirement, the risk may be mitigated through use of an authentication server.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to accept the DoD CAC credential to support identity management and personal authentication.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to accept the DoD CAC credential to support identity management and personal authentication. If the Central Log Server cannot be configured to accept the DoD CAC credential to support identity management and personal authentication, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81327

The Central Log Server must be configured to electronically verify the DoD CAC credential.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000392-AU-002300
Rule ID
SV-96041r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000392-AU-002300
CCI
CCI-001954
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

The use of PIV credentials facilitates standardization and reduces the risk of unauthorized access. DoD has mandated the use of the CAC to support identity management and personal authentication for systems covered under HSPD 12, as well as a primary component of layered protection for national security systems.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to accept the DoD CAC credentials to support identity management and personal authentication.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to accept the DoD CAC credentials to support identity management and personal authentication. If the Central Log Server cannot be configured to accept the DoD CAC credentials to support identity management and personal authentication, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81331

For locally created accounts in the application, the Central Log Server must be configured to allow the use of a temporary password for system logons with an immediate change to a permanent password.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000397-AU-002590
Rule ID
SV-96045r1_rule
Severity
Cat II
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000397-AU-002590
CCI
CCI-002041
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without providing this capability, an account may be created without a password. Non-repudiation cannot be guaranteed once an account is created if a user is not forced to change the temporary password upon initial logon. Temporary passwords are typically used to allow access to applications when new accounts are created or passwords are changed. It is common practice for administrators to create temporary passwords for user accounts that allow the users to log on, yet force them to change the password once they have successfully authenticated. The risk can be mitigated by allowing only the account of last resort to be configured locally. This requirement does not apply to that account.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to allow the use of a temporary password for system logons with an immediate change to a permanent password.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to allow the use of a temporary password for system logons with an immediate change to a permanent password. If the Central Log Server is not configured to allow the use of a temporary password for system logons with an immediate change to a permanent password, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81335

The Central Log Server must be configured to prohibit password reuse for a minimum of five generations.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000165-AU-002580
Rule ID
SV-96049r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000165-AU-002580
CCI
CCI-000200
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. To meet password policy requirements, passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals. If the information system or application allows the user to consecutively reuse their password when that password has exceeded its defined lifetime, the end result is a password that is not changed as per policy requirements.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to prohibit password reuse for a minimum of five generations.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to prohibit password reuse for a minimum of five generations. If the Central Log Server is not configured to prohibit password reuse for a minimum of five generations, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81337

The Central Log Server must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000166-AU-002490
Rule ID
SV-96051r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000166-AU-002490
CCI
CCI-000192
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used. If the Central Log Server is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81339

The Central Log Server must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000167-AU-002500
Rule ID
SV-96053r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000167-AU-002500
CCI
CCI-000193
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used. If the Central Log Server is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81345

The Central Log Server must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000168-AU-002510
Rule ID
SV-96059r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000168-AU-002510
CCI
CCI-000194
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used. If the Central Log Server is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81349

The Central Log Server must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000169-AU-002520
Rule ID
SV-96063r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000169-AU-002520
CCI
CCI-001619
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor in determining how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Special characters are those characters that are not alphanumeric. Examples include: ~ ! @ # $ % ^ *.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used. If the Central Log Server is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81353

The Central Log Server must be configured to require the change of at least 8 of the total number of characters when passwords are changed.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000170-AU-002530
Rule ID
SV-96067r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000170-AU-002530
CCI
CCI-000195
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

If the application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of passwords, this increases the chances of password compromise by increasing the window of opportunity for attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. The number of changed characters refers to the number of changes required with respect to the total number of positions in the current password. In other words, characters may be the same within the two passwords; however, the positions of the like characters must be different.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to require the change of at least 8 of the total number of characters when passwords are changed.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to enforce password complexity by requiring the change of at least 8 of the total number of characters when passwords are changed. If the Central Log Server is not configured to require the change of at least 8 of the total number of characters when passwords are changed, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81355

The Central Log Server must be configured to enforce 24 hours/1 day as the minimum password lifetime.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000173-AU-002560
Rule ID
SV-96069r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000173-AU-002560
CCI
CCI-000198
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Enforcing a minimum password lifetime helps prevent repeated password changes to defeat the password reuse or history enforcement requirement. Restricting this setting limits the user's ability to change their password. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy based intervals; however, if the application allows the user to immediately and continually change their password, then the password could be repeatedly changed in a short period of time to defeat the organization's policy regarding password reuse.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to enforce 24 hours/1 day as the minimum password lifetime.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to enforce 24 hours/1 day as the minimum password lifetime. If the Central Log Server is not configured to enforce 24 hours/1 day as the minimum password lifetime, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81359

The Central Log Server must be configured to enforce a 60-day maximum password lifetime restriction.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000174-AU-002570
Rule ID
SV-96073r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000174-AU-002570
CCI
CCI-000199
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked. Therefore, passwords need to be changed at specific intervals. One method of minimizing this risk is to use complex passwords and periodically change them. If the application does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the system and/or application passwords could be compromised. This requirement does not include emergency administration accounts that are meant for access to the application in case of failure. These accounts are not required to have maximum password lifetime restrictions.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to enforce a 60-day maximum password lifetime restriction.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to enforce a 60-day maximum password lifetime restriction. If the Central Log Server is not configured to enforce a 60-day maximum password lifetime restriction, this is a finding.

Removed

V-81363

The Central Log Server must map the authenticated identity to the individual user or group account for PKI-based authentication.

Finding ID
SRG-APP-000177-AU-002650
Rule ID
SV-96077r1_rule
Severity
Cat III
CCE
(None)
Group Title
SRG-APP-000177-AU-002650
CCI
CCI-000187
Target Key
(None)
Documentable
No
Discussion

Without mapping the certificate used to authenticate to the user account, the ability to determine the identity of the individual user or group will not be available for forensic analysis.

Fix Text

Configure the Central Log Server to map the authenticated identity to the individual user or group account for PKI-based authentication.

Check Content

Examine the configuration. Verify the Central Log Server is configured to map the authenticated identity to the individual user or group account for PKI-based authentication. If the Central Log Server is not configured to map the authenticated identity to the individual user or group account for PKI-based authentication, this is a finding.